Change Implementation Techniques for Laying a Foundation for New Ways

Technique 1.53 Hygiene and Motivators

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. Hygiene or organisational fitness refers to basic needs at work. These factors are not motivators but failure to address them may cause dissatisfaction.

. The motivators are what drive people to achieve, and these factors are built around growth and self‐actualisation. They are more important than hygiene factors in a transition process

. As part of the laying of the foundation for change, there is a need to check that these elements are adequate and are in place


. Are the following hygiene factors adequate in the organisation? (Yes/No ‐ if no, what are you going to do to fix it or them?)

i) salary and benefits (including basic income, fringe benefits, bonuses, holidays, etc) Yes/No

ii) working conditions (including working hours, workplace layout, facilities and equipment) Yes/No

iii) company policy (formal and informal rules and regulations that govern staff) Yes/No

iv) status (this is determined by rank, authority, relationship to others, level of acceptance, etc) Yes/No

v) job security (the degree of confidence that staff have regarding continued employment in the organisation) Yes/No

vi) supervision and autonomy (involves the extent of control that an individual has over the content and execution of the job) Yes/No

vii) office life (the level and type of interpersonal relations within the individual's working environment) Yes/No

viii) personal life (balance between family, friends and interests vs. time spent at work; personal well‐being including health and fitness, etc) Yes/No


. Are the following motivation factors adequate in the organisation? (Yes/No ‐ if no, what are you going to do to fix it or them?)

i) achievement (reaching or exceeding task objectives satisfies the "onwards and upwards" urge. It is a very powerful motivator and a great source of satisfaction. Greed can be a component of this) Yes/No

ii) recognition (acknowledgment by senior staff enhances self‐esteem and can be viewed as a reward in itself; includes financial and non‐financial elements) Yes/No

iii) job interest (a job that provides satisfying pleasure provides more motivation than an un‐interesting job. Ideally, responsibilities should be matched to individuals' interests. Furthermore, this is linked with work ethic, which includes attitude to and aptitude for work and the organisation, plus cultural fit with the organisation) Yes/No

iv) responsibility (the opportunity to exercise authority and power requires leadership skills, ethics (own and organisational), risk‐taking, decision‐making, self‐motivation and self‐direction ‐ these are linked with self‐esteem) Yes/No

v) advancement (the important perception is that promotion, progress and rising rewards for achievement are possibilities) Yes/No

In other words, how much a person achieves depends upon recognition. Furthermore, the ability to achieve depends upon having an enjoyable job and responsibility. The greater that responsibility, the more the individual can experience the satisfaction of advancement.

(sources: Robert Heller et al, 1998; Frederick Herzberg, 1998; Xerox Business Centre, 2004)


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