Technique 1.39 Non‐Verbal Signals (including tone)

Introduction

. Understanding non‐verbal or social signals (including overall body language, gesticulation, proximity to others, tone of voice, etc) is a vital component of interpersonal communications, comprehension, understanding, etc.

"...people may not often tell us in words what they feel, but they communicate their feelings in their tone of voice, their facial expressions and other non‐verbal ways..."

Martyn Newman, 2007

"...In conversations, people tend automatically and continuously to mimic and synchronize their movements with facial expressions, voices, postures, movements..."

Elaine Hatford has quoted by Robert Sutton, 2007

"...though we cannot literally read other people's minds, we spend a great deal of our daily lives listening carefully to what other people say, watching their faces, eyes and body language and trying to make sense of their behaviour..."

Robert Winston, 2002

"...the minute you open a business meeting or presentation, your first words will tell those present whether you are worth listening to. People are usually thinking about other things and you have to break their preoccupation. They'll give you a few minutes and then they go back to their thoughts, unless you hold them......your voice conveys a lot of information about you......it tells roughly how old you are, if you're interested in the conversation, and if you are lacking confidence or feeling low......when speech patterns are conflicting or predictable, the audience continues to hear but stops listening. To be entertained, the ear needs vocal variety. It is only when the content is compelling that the quality of voice does not matter..."

Michael Kelly as quoted by Jill Margo, 2007

The importance of non‐verbal signal compared with verbal signals is demonstrated by the Mebrabian equation for interpersonal communications:

"...Message = 20% words + 40% body language + 40% tone of voice..."

as quoted by John Edwards et al, 1997

Others (eg Amanda Cooper, 1996 and Rose‐Anne Manns, 2007a) state that words maybe as little as 7% of the message while body language accounts for 55%!!!!!!!

Yet most of our communication puts emphasis on the "word" part of the message, rather than the tone and/or body language

. It has been suggested that the reason body language is so important, it that it could be linked with the human evolutionary process, ie language was developed after body language (gestures)

"...language may have developed out of gestures......chimpanzees are much better at sign language than speaking......in their brains, the area corresponding to the Broca's area is involved with making and perceiving hand and arm movements. Deaf humans also have no difficulty developing sign languages..."

Furthermore, there is speculation

"...that bipedalism enabled early man to develop hand and facial gestures first and that speech only developed after the rules had been laid down in the brain for grammar, syntax, etc..."

Michael Corballis as quoted by Peter Watson, 2006

Body language or non‐verbal signals are important in effective communication, ie

"...in expressing internal emotional states to others, in reading their internal states, body language is very important......group communication, and at its most basic, entails the ability to read and express emotions......gestures, how we stand or sit, the use of our hands are all very important in conveying deference, indifference, trustworthiness..."

Robert Winston, 2003

An example of body language is some of President Obama's idiosyncrasies
"...When Obama delivered bad news, he would frown, his brow would furrow and he would be slightly tilting his head downwards......if he was being funny, he would smile and look up to the left..."
Hany Farid as quoted by Siddharth Venkataralakrishnan

. Software is being developed where they are able to analyse facial coding, full sensing, gesture tracking and gaze tracking

. Research (Michael Slepian, 2013) has demonstrated that by watching professional poker players' hands, the quality of their cards could be determined. It is known that anxiety has a tendency to disrupt smooth body movement. The more smoothly players pushed his/her chips to the middle of the table, the more likely that the player had a good hand. This is more revealing than other movements like eyes, face, etc

. Body language and leadership are linked. A leader's body language will have a great impact on his/her followers, especially if there is some passion. The body language will re‐enforce his/her message. For example, passion is best expressed by action (including tone and gestures) rather than words

. In the Western culture, the most successful people are

"...more energetic. They talk more, but also they listen more. They spend more face‐to‐face time with others. They pick up cues from others, draw people out, and get them to be more outgoing. It's not just what they project that makes them charismatic; is what they elicit. The more of these energetic, positive people you put on a team, the better the team performance..."

Alex Pentland, 2010

. The importance of face‐to‐face communications. Alex Pentland (2010), stresses its importance, ie it is 2 times as important to success as additional access to information. Furthermore, it is thought that productivity can be increased by 10% by just rearranging the work environment to promote more employee interaction.

. Body language or non‐verbal signals include

gestures (how we use our hands, etc)

facial expressions (see later)

actions

deeds

tone of voice (see later)

silence

stance

posture

movement

immobility

smile

presence and absence.

These non‐verbal signals usually "speak louder than words" and can strengthen or damage your communications.

. As an English medical student, Robert Winston received the following advice about establishing good emotional contact with a "white English" patient

"...shake hands at the start of a consultation, make eye contact, lean forward towards the patient, do not cross your arms or fiddle with your pen, do not answer the telephone or turn to engage another person in conversation. Sit close to them if they are lying or sitting, and try to keep your head at their level. Show interest in what they are saying..."

Robert Winston, 2003

. Remember: the first impression is pivotal in determining others' reaction to you. Even before your speak, people are making judgments about you based on your body language, etc. Included in first impressions is the way you dress, groom and behave. This has been referred to as the "beauty premium". Based on economic research in USA and Europe, the "beauty premium" is worth 5% in wages and there is a "plainness penalty" of 9%; with women receiving a lesser premium and a greater penalty than men. It is claimed that the "beauty premium"

"...is mostly due to physical appearance rather than self‐perception......it looks like there's no difference between discrimination based on race and that based on beauty. It doesn't mean that an ugly person can't rise to the top; it's just that they face impediments getting to the top in the same way that someone born overseas or a woman faces impediments..."

Andrew Leigh as quoted by Deirde Macken, 2008

. Non‐verbal signals incorporate macro‐ and micro‐expressions or messages. For example, if a person is nervous they will bite their lip, and there will be noticeable changes in the macro signals which include

heart and breathing rates

blood pressure

skin conductivity.

The micro‐measures are less controllable and more instantaneous than the macro messages. The micro‐indicators, such as inner eye and eyebrow movements, are more reliable indicators but harder to detect and more automatic than the macro‐indicators

For fear, the facial micro‐messages will include

the eyebrows pulled up and together

the upper eye lids are pulled up

the mouth stretches back a little.

Furthermore, our skin, eyes and heart all register changes when we make decisions.

. These micro‐message take 1/10 of a second to occur and are very hard to notice. Furthermore, you cannot make them happen on purpose and/or hide them. Thus, the micro‐messages are more subtle and more indicative than macro‐messages.

. This highlights the importance of face‐to‐face communications compared with other methods of communications, such as telephone, video and internet linkages, as the complex range of non‐verbal signals will be less detectable. A telephone caller maybe disadvantaged by not seeing the other person laying their hands on the table (that may indicate a readiness to negotiate) or their leaning back (which can indicate the rejection of a proposal). The significant cues of staring (which may indicate that we feel combative) or the placing of hands behinds the head (which may suggest that we think that we know it all!!!!) are not available in non‐visual contact situations

. Cultural differences that can complicate the interpretation of non‐verbal signals, such as the gesture of using the "thumb touching the first finger in an oval shape" sign which has meanings dependent on location:

in USA and Australia, it means "OK"

in southern France, it means "zero or worthless"

in Japan, it is the "symbol of money", ie a coin

in Fiji, it means "fear"

in Latin American countries, it means "jerk"

. A component of body language is the distance people stand apart when conversing, called distancing. Based on American studies, there are 4 types of distancing

intimacy distance (less than half a meter for people who know each other very well)

personal distance (around half to 1 metre is the range in which personal conversations are conducted as this distance permits normal voice and takes into account intense eye contact)

social distance (around 1 to 2 metres is the range in which one person is comfortable when talking to several at once, such at a party, in a crowd, etc; usually the voice is raised and there is less personal focus on any given individual

public distance (around 3 to 8 meters is the distance the audience is defined as undifferentiated and our voice can be raised with our eyes roaming the room rather than focusing on anyone in particular)

One needs to be aware of cultural differences in distancing. What is acceptable in some cultures will be regarded as too close in another culture, etc

. An interesting observation,

"...According to body language experts, if someone's feet are pointing the directly at the person speaking, then they are probably in deep conversation. If their body language is more open, they will be welcome to interlopers..."

Brad Hatch, 2006a

. Furthermore, we automatically assign positive traits like honesty, intelligence, kindness and talent to good‐looking people, and we make these judgments unconsciously

. Research conducted in the 1976 Canadian Federal Elections found

"...attractive candidates received two and half times the votes given unattractive candidates......follow‐up research with voters found 73% of voters strongly denied that a candidate's appearance could have influenced their choice and only 1 in 8 voters was prepared to even consider that a candidate's appearance could have affected their vote. This means they made their votes on a subconscious level without even knowing it......our brains are hardwired to react to another's physical appearance..."

Alan Pease et al, 2002

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