Organisational Change Management Volume 2


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. Leadership is obviously a critical factor in Guideline 3

. As Peter Drucker states, leadership is not charisma and not a set of personality traits. It is essentially about performance and it is a means to an end. It involves work that can be mundane, unromantic and boring, ie

"...the leader sets goals, sets priorities, and sets and maintains the standards. He makes compromises........but before accepting a compromise, the effective leader has thought through what is right and desirable.... what distinguishes the leader from the misleader are his goals.......The compromises he makes within the constraints of reality..."

Peter Drucker, 2001

. Peter Drucker further states that leadership is a responsibility rather than a rank and privilege. Remember: Harry Truman's statement that the buck stops here!!!!!!

There are library full of books on leadership and most are on Western style of leadership, especially USA-centric. These styles do not take in account non-Western cultural issues. Below is a list of generic characteristics that make good change leadership, ie

. Awareness (of own and others' strengths & weaknesses)

. Behaviours (exemplary; doing the right thing - not necessarily the popular thing; know when to be "tough" &/or "soft")

. Role model (leading by example, ie positive example)

. Providing a vision or focus for the future that people are willing to follow (it is shared & relevant; it motivates & persuades others)

. Willingness to change

. Resilience in face of adversity or crisis (able to handle hard times)

. Humility (high ambition but small ego)

There is no perfect recipe for leadership as it is based on circumstances (situational & contextual)

Need leaders who inspire, influence and innovate
"...if your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you're a leader..."
John Quincy Adams, 6th US President as quoted in Grammar News, 2015

. Furthermore, effective leaders encourage "strong"(able, independent and self-assured) and diverse staff around them, who challenge them.

" effective leader knows that the ultimate task of leadership is to create human energies and human vision......the final requirement of effective leadership is to earn trust......the only definition of a leader is someone who has trust a leader, it is not necessary to like him. Nor is it necessary to agree with him. Trust is the conviction that the leader means what he says..."

Peter Drucker, 2001

This is called integrity, especially with the leader's actions and beliefs being congruent and/or compatible, and consistent.

. According to Rob Goffee (2008) followers want community, significance, excitement and authenticity from their leaders.

. There are 5 types of followers (Barbara Kellerman, 2008) based on the degree of engagement, ie isolates, bystanders, participants, activists and diehards.

- isolates (those you don't know, who don't care and not respond, ie tightly disengaged)

- bystanders (observers who do nothing)

- participants (are engaged enough to care and to offer support)

- activists (eager, energetic and engaged)

- diehards (those who are prepared to "die"for a cause)

. More work on followers shows that they have 4 basic needs, ie stability, compassion, trust and hope

- stability

"...I need to know the things around me are secure, they are real and they are going to last into the future and that is a critical part of what makes me feel secure in what I do.."

Barry Conchie et al as quoted by Fiona Smith, 2009e

- compassion

"... I need leaders to project the sense that they care about me, though they might not know me as a person. But, through their actions and through their words, they show some compassion for my existence and for what it is I want and need in life..."

Barry Conchie et al as quoted by Fiona Smith, 2009e

- trust

"...there has to be some honesty and openness in the face of the situation that confronts me. So, I don't trust the leader who speaks in Pollyanna language and who dresses up problems as easy to solve or pretends there are problems where there are none - because I can see through that..."

Barry Conchie et al as quoted by Fiona Smith, 2009e

- hope

"...the optimist tries to communicate to people that struggle is worthwhile, there is going to be benefit to be gained as a consequence of the hardship that we go through. That the future state we are going to create is better than the state that we are in, and that I am part of the solution rather than a passer-by watching what is going on..."

Barry Conchie et al as quoted by Fiona Smith, 2009e

It has been demonstrated that employees who strongly believe their leaders feel enthusiastic about the future, and engage considerably better in the workplace.

. Some more comments on leadership

"...leadership is best thought of as a behaviour, not a role..."

Margaret Wheatley, 1996

On the his 75th birthday, Winston Churchill stated:

"...What will separate the leaders of tomorrow from the leaders of today will be their ability to manage change and to understand the world, not only as it is but as it may soon be..."

as quoted by Lachan Hart, 1999

"...The real contribution of leadership in a time of change lies in managing the dynamics, not the pieces. The fundamental job of leadership is to deal with the dynamics of change, and the forces that changes unleash, so that the organisation is better prepared to compete..."

Harvard Business Review,1999

"...The narrow (and often unforgiving) path towards mastering the complexities of change and leadership is rarely travelled in straight lines...."

Kerry Patterson et al, 1996

"...There is no such thing as a perfect leader......If there is one, he is only pretending, like a pig inserting scallions into its nose in an effort to look like an elephant..."

Liu Shao-Ch'I as quoted by Harvard Business Review, 1998

"...Leadership's job is to set the frame and set people free..."

Carly Compass, AFRBoss 2000

"Setting the frame"means making key choices about strategy, making key choices about structure and profit, making the key choices about rewards and metrics, making the key choices about culture and behaviour. Then, within that frame, empowering people, setting them free to invent on behalf of customers.

"...the 4 Es of GE leadership: very high energy levels, the ability to energise others around common goals, the edge to make tough yes-and-no decisions, and finally, the ability to consistently execute and deliver on their promises.....In my mind, the 4 Es are connected by one P - passion..."

Jack Welch as quoted by Jack Welch et al, 2001

"...Leadership is an improvisational art. You may have an overreaching vision, clear and orienting values, and even a strategic plan, but what you actually do from moment to moment cannot be scripted. To be effective, it must respond to what is take action, step back and assess the results of the action, reassess the plan.....and make the next move. You have to maintain a diagnostic mindset, changing reality......a plan is not more than today's best guess. Tomorrow you discover the unanticipated effects of today's actions and adjust to those unexpected events.

Sustaining the leadership, then, requires first and foremost the capacity to see what is happening to you and your initiative, as it is happening. This takes discipline and flexibility, and it is hard to do. You are immersed in the action, responding to what is right there in front of you. And when you do get some distance, you still have the challenge of accurately reading and interpreting what you now observe. You need to hear what people are saying, but not accept their words at face value. Groups want you to take their viewpoint. People want you to understand their motivation and the explanation of behaviour in their own terms. Creating alternative interpretations, listening to the song beneath the words, is inherently provocative, but necessary if you going to address the real stakes, fears, and conflicts.

Pay very close attention to senior authority figures. Read their words and behaviours as signals for the effects you are stimulating in the group as a whole. See through them to the constituencies pulling them in a variety of directions. Don't just personalize what you see. Read authorities to gauge the pace and manner to push forward......The lone warrior myth of leadership is a sure route to heroic suicide......relating to people is central to leading and staying alive......beyond developing your own base of support, let them help you relate to your opposition, those people who feel what they have the most to lose with your initiative. You need to be close to them to know what that are thinking and feeling, and to demonstrate that you are aware of their difficulty. Moreover, your efforts needs to gain those folks who are uncommitted. You will have to find appropriate ways to own up to your piece of the mess and the knowledge of the risks and losses people might have to sustain. Sometimes you can demonstrate your awareness by modeling the risk or the loss in self. But sometimes your commitments will be tested by your willingness to let people go. Without the heart to engage in sometimes costly conflict you can lose the whole organisation..."

Ronald A. Heifetz et al, 2002

"...Leadership is an action that involves discussing the undiscussable and asking questions that no one wants to hear..."

Paul Porteous as quoted by Julie Macken, 2004

Furthermore, Porteous comments on how to be a leader

"...Understand the issue and context: avoid quick fixes, dig deep to a depth to identify the underlying issues represented by competing values, assumptions or beliefs.

Partner to survive: build like-minded coalitions but pay particular attention to your opponents' views; you may have missed something.

Act with purpose: don't worry if people agree or disagree; it is the engagement that generates innovation.

Remember, leadership is an action, not necessarily a position..."

Paul Porteous as qouted in Julie Macken, 2004

. According to Howard Gardner (2006), leaders require at least 3 intelligences

i) be gifted as storytellers, ie they need to know how to create a story, how to communicate effectively and how to alter it

ii) interpersonal intelligence, ie they need to understand other people, be able to motivate them, listen to them, and respond to their needs and aspirations.

iii) extension intelligence, ie they need to be comfortable with posing the fundamental questions, such by explaining their vision and to answer fundamental questions about life, death and the prospects of the future

Furthermore, effective leaders hire people whose intelligences complement their own

In addition to the above intelligences, leaders require a well honed instinct (gut feeling), ie a feeling for the right move at a particular situation or

"...a partially conscious but difficult-to-articulate recognition of the resemblance of a present situation to earlier ones, in which one course of action proved far superior to its rivals......leaders should acknowledge that sometimes a decision, whether based primarily on the head or the gut, will be wrong..."

Howard Gardner, 2006

Remember: incorrect decisions create opportunities

Furthermore, effective leadership requires integrity; including finding time for reflection and

" openness to changes in the world and oneself; sensitivity to the valid strains in both stories and counter-stories; flexibility in the presentation of one's fundamental themes; and a sense of the commitment to a mission coupled with humility and one's actual potency. Some would call these features the prerequisites to wisdom..."

Howard Gardner, 2006

. According to Rob Goffee (2008), characteristics of authentic leadership include

- sensing situations

- reading and rewriting the context

- identifying by getting close but keeping your distance

- revealing differences by knowing and showing yourself enough

- revealing weaknesses

- communicating with care

- conforming enough

- practising what you preach

- keeping a common thread

- being comfortable with your background and origins

To develop the above you need to

- maximise the number of leadership-type experiences

- cultivate sources of replenishment, eg holidays

- gain perspective (know who you are, where you are, etc)

- get honest feedback

- accept that you are not perfect (develop relationships where people help each other)

- consider the difference between being good v. being great (conforming enough)

- determine if you are in the right place to express your authentic self? (do the things that you care about)

According to Rob Goffee (2008), followers want community, significance, excitement and authenticity from their leaders.

More on leadership
There are 7 types of leadership development involving being able to interpret their own and others' behaviour (David Rooke et al, 2005 & Joanne Gray, 2015l). The 7 are broken into conventional leadership (first 4 stages) and transformational leadership (last 3 stages). The stages are
i) opportunists (trying to win at all costs)

ii) diplomats (wanting to belong and never rocking the boat)

iii) experts (ruled by logic and expertise)

iv) achievers (focused on getting things done and solving problems)

v) individualists (willing to buck the rules and innovate)

vi) strategists (able to focus on the long-term and inspire others)

vii) alchemists (able to create a long-term vision that inspires and transforms a large community)

NB It is estimated that only around 15% of leaders are post-conventional, ie last 3 types above. These are the leaders who are highly valued in times of rapid change for their ability to navigate changing times that are more volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous. The remainder are limited by an inability to look beyond the short term, their narrow perspectives, and their own self interest/focus. their style of leadership is suitable in stable times


"'re unlikely to be successful in organisational change if you can only see the world of your own perspective..."

Maja Stanojevic-Andre as quoted by Joanne Gray, 2015l


As a person's self awareness grows, their egos matures and their perspective widens. Only then can they engage with stakeholders and build a long-term vision. For example, at board meetings, people with high EQ can sense the unspoken, underlying concerns. They are sensitive to the emotional landscape and can recognise the underlying power control dynamics

"...Leaders must understand that it is not just skills and capabilities that are important......this is especially true of leading during complex change, when retention of  accumulated knowledge is less important than the capability to learn, unlearn and relearn and to ask whether a company's business unit's goal can be improved..."

Joanne Gray, 2015l

You need to be aware of how you think and if necessary change how you think by asking
- How do I make sense of the reality that I have?
- What assumptions are I making?
- How did I get to think that way?

. In summary

"...the search for the universal correct leadership style is doomed to failure because of the cultural variations by country, by industry, by occupation, and by the particular history of a given organisation..."

Edgar Schein, 2004

", be a truly effectively leader is not all about what you are done in the past; the degrees you have, the roles you had, the accolades you have been awarded. It's about being what we call "inwardly focused and others - focused"...t is about being self-aware and secure enough to think of others' needs......changing our habits formed to a world view that recognises the dignity of all who laboured in our enterprise and place ourselves in proper perspective by recognising that to over achieve, we must fully engage all staff in the mission, by minimising the management of people in becoming coaches and mentors.......- the best leaders - it's not about what people have done in their lives. It's about their character; it is about who they are, what drives them, what motivates them, how humble they are, how supportive they are of their people, how aware they are of their own brokenness and how they use their brokenness to learn and grow..."

Mike Kane, 2015/2016

At your funeral, would you want to be remembered for your wealth, fame and status or would you prefer your kindness, bravery, honesty and faithfulness?

(sources: Peter Drucker, 2001; Ronald A. Heifetz et al, 2002; Jack Welch et al, 2001; AFRBoss 2000; Harvard Business Review,1998 & 1998; Kerry Patterson et al, 1996; Lachan Hart, 1999; Margaret Wheatley, 1996; Julie Macken, 2004; Edgar Schein, 2004; Howard Gardner, 2006; Barbara Kellerman, 2008; Mike Kane, 2015/2016)

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