Types of Coordination (direct and indirect)

- indirect (authorities external to the group decide how the coordination is achieved; there are 2 common forms, ie

    i) "...coordination is achieved because interdependent people follow procedures developed elsewhere..."

Bob Dick, 2021a

    ii) somebody in authority instructing members what they will do, usually in detail, ie superior-subordinate relationship

- direct (individuals in the group decide how the coordination is achieved, eg develop procedures that can be modified to suit the emerging situation; there are constraints, ie usually around resources and expected outcomes. For this to be successful, individuals need to take direct responsibility. Certain precautions also need to be observed, ie

    i) participants require a certain maturity, skills and understanding prior to starting

    ii) people in authority, like team leaders, need to relinquish control to the participants

    iii) as the culture of the group develops, it can become a mismatch with the rest of the organisation, so ways to handle the resulting cultural clash need to be developed.

    iv) initially the group's internal limits need to be strict and they can be relaxed as experience and understanding grows; it is easier to develop external than internal limits)


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