xxiii) Need to understand that challenges have occurred to some modern psychological theories that are based around the questions , ie

"...Do social context and expectations significantly change behaviour, and, if so when and how so?..."

Benedict Carey 2018

There are 3 classical studies around these questions:

"...The famous Stanford prison experiment, which found that people play acting as guards quickly exhibited uncharacteristic cruelty; the landmark marshmallow test, which found that young children who can delay gratification show greater educational achievement years later than those who could not; and the less known but influential concept of ego depletion - the idea that willpower is like a muscle and can be built up but also tires..."

Benedict Carey 2018

One way to test these theories is to replicate the trials. This can be difficult but one researcher (Nosek) published a paper in 2015 finding about 60% of the prominent studies gave different results when replicated.

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