More on AI

"...almost every day brings startling advances in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), the seemingly magical general-purpose technology of our times. In 1997, the world was stunned when IBM's Deep Blue computer beat the greatest chess player of all time, Garry Kasparov. Although impressive in its way, Deep Blue was little more than an immensely powerful rules-based calculating machine......but more recent advances in deep learning techniques, combined with explosion of data from our smart phones and computers and massive increases in computing power, have enabled machine-learning programs to perform an increasing array of tasks as well as (if not better than) any human: interpreting radiology scans, flying aircraft, identifying images and recognising speech. Google's Deep Mind's defeated two of the best players of the ancient - and fiendishly complex - Chinese game of Go in 2016 and 2017......using a very different technique from Deep Blue, AlphaGo's success stemmed from "learning" by itself, defying 2500 years of accepted wisdom on the game..."

John Thornhill 2019

Some comments around AI

- as humans we think we are brilliantly unique and at the top of the pyramid when compared to other life forms. However

"...We are little different from other creatures, sharing common ancestry with bacteria, pansies, trout and sheep..."

John Thornhill 2019

- machine learning may become exceptionally good in many narrow domains but is still weak in terms of general intelligence, ie climbing stairs

- some feel that human's natural stupidity will continue to be a greater threat to humanity than AI

"...sweeping technological revolution whose consequences we have failed to fully reckon with, and whose cumulation may be a world relying on machines powered by the date and algorithms and governed by ethical or philosophical norms......the Internet's purpose is to ratify knowledge through accumulation and manipulation of ever expanding data. Human cognition loses its personal character. Individuals turn into data......demand information relevant to their immediate practical needs. In the process, search-engine algorithms predict the preferences of individual clients.....and make them available to other parties who have political or commercial purposes. The digital world's emphasis on speed inhibits reflection; its incentive empowers the radical over the thoughtful; its values are shaped by subgroup consensus, not by introspection.....Perhaps most significant is the project of producing artificial intelligence - a technology capable of inventing and solving complex, abstract problems by processes that seem to replicate those of the human mind. This goes far beyond automation as we have known it. Automation deals with means.....AI systems.....are in constant flux..."

Henry Kissinger 2018

AI follows mathematical, not human, principles and has been trained to act in a certain way but not to explain it, ie

"...these algorithms, being mathematical interpretations of observed data, do not explain the underlying reality that produces it.....AI, by marshalling certain competencies more rapidly and definitely than humans, could diminish human competencies and the human condition itself turns into data..."

Henry Kissinger 2018

"...true promise of AI to create new-to-the-world value, whether from identifying patterns in data and making new connections, scenario-modelling to make predictions to inform better decision-making, rewiring entire value chains, or even redrawing industry boundaries. The key to achieving long-term structural change from AI lies in the power of these emerging systems to learn and modify themselves without human intervention. These are closed loops: that is, they make predictions about the future and monitor to learn if these are accurate before modifying themselves accordingly without human intervention. Always on, always learning at unprecedented scale. All fueled by data..."

Adrian Turner 2018

Like all new technologies AI is creating a new language, eg

- far-field voice technology (machines can decipher speech at a distance; no clicks required

- frictionless, ie

"...No need to walk over to the desktop and type search term into a browser; no need to track down your iPhone and punch in your passcode..."

Judith Shulevitz 2018

- contextual carryover (involves short-term memory and syntactical back-referencing, ie knows what has been asked before and has the ability to answer follow-up questions)

- psychology of the voice, ie

"...Voices create intimacy......confessing emotional state to electronic devices......expressions of depression and suicides..."

Judith Shulevitz 2018

The electronic devices need to be instructed on how to handle these situations

- prosody, ie

" vocal signatures consist of not only our style of stringing words together but also the sonic marinade in which these words steep, a rich medley of tone, rhythm, pitch, resonance, pronounciation and many other features..."

Diana Van Lancker Sidtis as quoted by Judith Shulevitz 2018

- emotional detection and production (software is able to understand a person's mood and

"...Analyse linguistic content and tone of voice at the same time, which allows them to find the gap between words and inflections that determine whether a speaker means the exact opposite of what she said..."

Judith Shulevitz 2018

Following emotional detection is emotion production, ie

"...Training artificially intelligent agents to generate approximations of emotions. Once computers have become virtuosic at breaking down the emotional components of our speech, it's only a matter of time before they can reassemble them in incredible performances of, say, empathy. Virtual assistants able to discern and react to the users' frame of mind can create a genuine-seeming sense of affinity..."

Judith Shulevitz 2018

Some uses of AI (2018) include

- mining (global miners like BHP and Rio Tinto using automated (driverless) trucks/trains to reduce safety problems and improve productivity in mines and for transporting the ore. The driverless trains are expected to continually perform like the best drivers - this is expected to result in a 6% improvement in performance - and help with track maintenance. There will be less need for drivers. Furthermore, there's no need to stop the trains for a driver changeover, ie

"...You can imagine what it takes to stop a 33,000 tonne train and then to start it again and the knock-on effect for all the trains behind it..."

Brad Thomson 2018)

"...the arrival of AI is being driven by sharp growth in datasets, rapid advancement in algorithms and cheap and you-beaut computing technology, which allows machines to recognise patterns and derive insights by processing massive amounts of data..."
James Eyers 2019a

An example is Qantas (Australian-based international airline)

"...We are looking at AI and automation to help with customers, technology and planning...... for planning we're been using a huge database of 10 years of weather patterns developed by the University of Sydney to figure out optimum flight plans, speed up journey time...... by moving aircraft into powerful jet streams - fast moving air currents - Qantas expects the system will cut its annual fuel bill by $40 million and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 50 million kg...."
Alan Joyce as quoted by James Eyers 2019a

This data is expected to help with Qantas's Project Sunrise - flying customer directly to London in 20 hours from Australia

- food (CSIRO is developing ways to get omega 3 out of canola as a way to identify, isolate and improve the grains)

- utilities (CSIRO is working with 30 water utilities around the world using data analytics to project water pipe failures)

- capital markets ( ASIC is using AI to spot mis-behaviour in capital markets)

- environment (CSIRO's Data61 to provide technical advice identifying animals and intervention to protect habitats, eg track fish in the Great Barrier Reef, monitor diversity in the Amazon and deter elephants from entering African villages using sensors)

- replaced mundane tasks and increased efficiency

- automobiles (self-driving vehicles will become safer as computers will learn from their experiences, eg

"...the first encounter with the kangaroo miss-labelled it as a dog: the car used machine match images on the Internet and within hours every car in the fleet around the world could recognise a kangaroo..."

Adrian Turner 2018

- banking (learning systems can more accurately qualify credit worthiness)

- agriculture (to produce a new national-scale, high fidelity, soil maps for farmers, etc to better understand potential profitability of farms)

- education (learning new language systems by analysing millions of sentences written by humans. Google's BERT has analysed many books including romance novels, science fiction, etc plus Wikipedia, ie

"...BERT can handle the commonsense test from the Allen Institute. It also can handle a reading comprehensive test where it answers questions about encyclopaedia articles.....,.The complex mathematical systems behind this technology is called neural networks. In recent years, this type of machine learning has accelerated progress on subjects as varied as face recognition technology and driverless cars. Researchers call this deep learning..."

Cade Metz 2018a)

- health care

(i) using AI, scan time-lapsed videos of embryos during development to identify those with the greatest chance of survival

ii) Proteomics is the study of proteins; they play an important role in nearly all our biological processes, eg they make antibodies to battle infection, they grow bone and muscle, convert what we eat into nutrients, etc. They are the biological machinery of human beings. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

"...humans have 20 commonly occurring amino acids: we produce 11 naturally and obtain 9 more from what we eat......the blueprints of proteins are stored inside genes which contain DNA and RNA. RNA is like a courier, delivering instructions from genes to cells for making proteins from specified assortments of amino acids..."

Michael Behar 2018

Our genes are static, ie we live and die with the same set we were born with. While genes analysis can give an indication of the probability of getting an illness, it can't tell if you actually have the illness. However, the presence of proteins can confirm an illness is present, ie it will appear in the blood long before any symptoms are obvious.

Our proteins are constantly changing as a result of environmental factors like fitness, smoking, alcohol, stress, eating, emotions, etc. They can signal an illness even before the symptoms show. Until recently the sheer number of proteins and the complexity of the interactions made screening impractical, even impossible. With the advent of powerful computers and AI (machine learning), we are discovering more about what is happening in our bodies, ie swarms of protein indicating diseases are able to be detected. Research has found that there are at least 1,000 proteins associated with diabetes.

Sophisticated algorithms can produce complex disease fingerprints showing unique proteomic patterns conveying

a) probability (odds of having a disease)

b) trajectory (when you'll get sick)

c) current state (if you're already ill but no obvious symptoms)

There are 5000+ proteins in a drop of blood!!

Proteomics can determine how the body will respond to treatments, eg medications and lifestyle changes.

So far around 50 diseases can be identified before symptoms appear. These diseases include lung cancer, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, Alzheimers, kidney disease, strep throat flu, etc..

"...the prostrate-specific antigen protein, or PSA, can indicate if a man has prostrate cancer. The blood drawn at your annual physical is analysed for a variety of its proteins, like haemoglobin and lipoproteins, which flag cholesterol levels. Perhaps the most common and reliable test is pregnancy pee stick, which measures human chorionic gonadotropin , or hCG , a hormone protein produced by the placenta..."

Michael Behar 2018

It will cost a patient under $100 per scan.





Robotic surgery, eg when compared with traditional open surgery, robotic surgery is a safer option as it

- minimises invasiveness, ie mobilisation is faster and as there are no large cuts through muscle there is less inflammation

- less blood loss which means a lower risk of transfusion

- less psychological distress during surgery

- less pain which means fewer painkillers required

- recovery is faster

- less Prostrate Specific Antigen (PSA) which is a blood marker for prostrate, ie if PSA is present in the blood after surgery, it means there is still some prostrate cancer in the body

(source: Jill Margo 2018)


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