Examples (47) of Seeing with new Eyes

1. Writing in space

NASA (USA space agency) wanted to find a method to use a pen in conditions of zero gravity. NASA spent several million dollars developing a ballpoint pen with pressurised nitrogen to force out the ink. In the meantime the Russians used a pencil - even chalk and slate would have sufficed! Although the most practical and cheapest solution to the problem was already available, the NASA scientists could not 'see it': their mindset was blinded by technology. This was also a case of incorrectly defining a problem: the NASA scientists wanted to modify a ballpoint pen for use in space, rather than find a writing instrument that would work in zero gravity

2. Bulgarian bulldozers

After the first Gulf War, Kuwait needed to find ways to extinguish the many oil fires started by the retreating Iraqi army. USA experts recommended that the Kuwaitis use explosives to starve the fires of oxygen, but that would have taken months and been very dangerous. On the other hand, the Bulgarians indicated that they could bulldoze the fires using drivers wearing protective fire-proof suits - this would take just a few weeks and would be a lot cheaper and less dangerous than using explosives.

3. Look: no inventory!

In the early 1980s, a group of executives from various US-based automobile organisations went to Japan to try to find out why the Japanese were outperforming their American counterparts. On returning, one executive stated that he was not impressed with the Japanese as they did not show them 'real plants'. He felt that his visit had been staged-managed. When the executive was questioned more about this statement, he stated that he had not seen a real plant as there was no inventory in the Japanese plants. How wrong he was! He had seen a radically different production system called 'just-in-time' and had failed to realise its significance and potential.

4. Re-branding

BP, by re-branding itself as "Beyond Petroleum", has exploited its marketing and technology management skills that were developed in its fossil fuel business to become a market leader in renewable energy technologies, such as solar cells. This was exposed as a shame, ie "green washing", after BP's Deepwater Horizon oil spill and resultant environmental disaster in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 (James Chessell, 2016).

5. Railways and optic fibres

Fibre-optic cable through decommissioned pipelines/railway lines (Qwest in USA used to be a railway firm until it was pointed out to them the advantages of running optic fibres next to the railway lines)

6. Railways as prime real estate

Railway lines as prime real estate in Japan (building above the railway lines)

7. Fertiliser and clay pigeons

Shooting range (user-friendly clay pigeons made of ice with fertiliser)

8. Quartz movement

In 1967 the Swiss watch industry put on display an invention showing quartz movement technology, but they hadn't patented the idea. They didn't realise that this invention would destroy around 80% of their own industry. Their own assumptions about the nature of watch making were so strong they were incapable of understanding the full implications of this invention

9. Post it notes

The inventor of 'post-it notes' thought that he had failed as he wanted to develop labels that would stick permanently. Luckily, somebody else saw the potential of temporary stick-on notes.

10. Refrigerators warm food

Selling refrigerators to the Eskimos (prevent food from freezing)

11. Shoes in Africa

One salesperson saw a limited market selling shoes in Africa as very few people were wearing shoes, while another salesperson saw it as a great opportunity to sell shoes for the same reason!

12. Transistor, sister

Bells Lab, who dominated research in the telephone industry from 1920s to 1960s, developed the transistor. They (Bell) could not see its use inside the telephone, thus sold for it for $US25,000!!!!! Yet it was one of the most valuable developments that Bell produced, as most electronics are based on it

13. Condoms and safety

A condom maker applying the same technology to making safety gloves

14. Heart to Viagra

In 1992 a group of healthy men took part in a trial to test the drug Sildenafil which was aimed to treat angina, the chest pains caused by heart disease. The drug had an unexpected side effect, and was eventually rebranded as Viagra

15. Corn flakes

Kellogg Brothers developed corn flakes by accident in 1894. They were trying to produce an alternative and healthier form of bread by rolling wheat, and produced a sticky doughy mess. Regarded as useless, it was thrown out. A few days later, the dough became mouldy. Then it was rolled a second time and to everyone's surprise, produced large thin flakes of wheat that were crisp and tasty after being oven baked

16. Nelson Mandela

Prior to Nelson Mandela's release from jail in to South Africa, one of the top academic think-tanks in USA sent some of its staff to study the potential impact of his release. The resultant report concluded that after his release there would be civil war in South Africa and a million people would die. This think-tank's mindset was totally blinded by what had happened previously when political power had changed radically in the American Civil War and elsewhere in Africa

17. Technology cross pollinating

Initially technologies ran in parallel - now they crisscross and are revolutionizing each other's industry. Examples include

- the basics of genetics are so remote from those of pharmacy ‐ and yet genetics is rapidly changing the pharmaceutical industry. Despite this link, no pharmaceutical organisation has successfully integrated genetics into its own research program. So far the links have been through alliances, partnerships, etc

- new market realities of converging technology, such as in consumer electronics, mobile communications, computers, digital entertainment and broadband networks businesses

18. No game, more pain

One of the best ways to alleviate pain is to introduce a distraction. Burn patients undergoing treatment on their wounds reported that their pain dropped dramatically when they played 3D virtual reality games. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed that playing the games actually reduces the amount of pain-related activity. Virtual reality programs can also help phobic patients overcome their fears, such as spiders, heights, flying or public speaking, by exposing patients to virtual simulations of the cause of their phobia. As the patient gradually overcomes the fear, the simulations become more realistic. A specially designed program is now being used to treat survivors of terrorist attacks for post-traumatic stress disorder.

19. Interactive technology

- Using Internet games with computer-aided design technology to create interactive 3-D environments for professionals in the construction industry to work in real time. This enables the professionals to explore and test ideas for Australian property, design, construction and facility management industry. It allows every aspect of the development to be visualized, ie associated plans can be studied interactively by planners, builders, suppliers, residents, housing authority, environmentalists, etc. Latest software allows users to optimize quality and functionality of the development, or the sustainability and its lifecycle performance.

Furthermore, it is claimed that people actually brainstorm significantly better when working collaboratively in cyberspace!!!!!

- In South Korea, on-line multi-player games are used by students to learn English, maths, science and history. These interactive games are becoming more popular than text books

20. Houdini's lucky escape

One of the most intriguing stories about Harry Houdini (the world's greatest ever escape artist) involved his escaping from a bank vault with a state-of-the-art locking system. He was allocated 3.5 minutes to escape. He tried to pick the locks, but he couldn't hear any familiar click sounds. When the time was almost up, he was getting desperate and accidentally leaned against the vault door. It creaked open. The door was had not been locked, but Houdini believed it was. Only the accident of leaning on the door changed his mindset (and saved his career!).

21. Bagged lettuce

The washing, cutting, packing and wrapping of lettuce has seen the growth of this industry from 0 to $US1.5 billion in 10 years and it does not involve a silicon chip!!!!!!

22. Fashion statements (watches and mobile phones)

Recognition that watches and mobile phones are far more than functional use: they are fashion statements

23. Photographer dilemma

A famous but poor photographer had one of his photos used ‐ without permission - in a political brochure for President Roosevelt and the oversight was realised too late to stop production of the brochures. Many advisers did not want to contact him, as they feared a large financial claim due to his precarious financial position and his reputation of being very possessive of his photos. One advisor did, however, make contact and explained how his reputation as a famous photographer would be enhanced by the use of the photo. The photographer was happy with this

24. Competitiveness and sustainability as partners

Businesses can be both competitive and achieve sustainable development (environmentally and socially). The assumption that business will have to relocate to the lowest environmentally regulatory cost havens is being disputed. Furthermore, there is evidence that companies and nations who pursue best practice in sustainable development have improved their productivity and competitive advantage. Stringent product standards and tough environmental rules and regulations are not a hindrance but provide an opportunity to innovate to improve products and services.

"...Detailed case studies of hundreds of the industries, based on dozens of countries, reveal that internationally competitive companies are not those with the cheapest inputs or the largest, but those with the capacity to improve and innovate continually. Competitive advantage, then, rests not on steady efficiency or on optimizing within fixed constraints, but on the capacity for innovation and improvement that shift the constraints..."

Karlson Hargroves et al, 2005

Organisations need to see beyond the short-term cost of dealing with tough standards and see the long-term benefits in terms of innovation. For example, the higher environmental standards imposed by Germany have resulted in more than 700,000 jobs in the economy and increased exports to other countries (in particular to countries that do not have such stringent controls). Furthermore, it creates more up-market jobs, such as in the knowledge industry, and adds value so that a premium can be charged for the goods and services

25. Avon calling!!

Re-inventing brands such as Avon - initially in the late 19th century Avon started selling fragrances through a network of representatives, rather than stores. In just 20 years around 10,000 women were selling 117 different products. By 1990s the concept of "ding dong" Avon lady and catalogue (first introduced in 1906) was not performing. Enter Andrea Jung who changed the company starting in 2000, ie

"...Jung's make-over strategy involved rethinking the entire organisation, from suppliers to the way products were distributed, ordered and delivered, product development time cycles and slashing costs. There needed to be new product lines, more glamorous, glossy advertising campaigns and definitely no more ding dong Avon calling catch phrases...... the original revitalisation plan was scheduled to take 3 years and Jung did it in 18 months..."

Emily Ross et al, 2004

This was done by introducing new products and expanding into new markets, such as China, ie as door-to-door sales in China were banned, Avon began selling in the beauty salons and then set up franchise shops with China Post East

26. Internet sales and cabin crew as sales staff

Changes to the airlines with the Internet and low-cost carrier model have resulted in airlines now getting the majority of their bookings through the Internet and ancillary revenue provides a great potential for airlines to grow their profits. The low-cost carrier model gives travelers choice, eg when flying on a night flight, the traveler may choose just to pay for their fare rather than pay for in-flight entertainment, meals, snacks, etc. Ryanair makes 13% of its revenue from ancillary items, such as movies, phone calls, snacks, meals, etc. Thus the challenge is to turn cabin crew into salespeople, ie get them motivated to sell. One way of doing this is to pay the crew on a commission basis for these ancillary sales

27. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the brain

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was discovered in 1946 and its discoverers were awarded the Nobel prize. MRI was initially used on inert substances and man-made structures and it was not considered suitable for living biological tissue. It was not until 1971 that it was thought that MRI could be used on living biological tissues, such as the brain

MRI works on the principle that every part of the body is made up of atoms which resemble miniature magnets, each with a north and south pole.

"...if a part of the human body is put inside a scanning machine which contains an intense magnetic field, atoms in the tissues were lined up like magnets, with the north poles all facing in the same direction.......with a quick blast of radio-waves at the lined up atoms, they would all start to rotate. As they returned to their north-south orientation, the atoms themselves will need radio-waves and these can be picked up by the sensors in the machine......in every different tissue of the body, the atoms happen to rotate at different speeds, so each tissue can be singled out on the scanner and added to the overall picture to build the final image..."

Robert Winston, 2002

28. Prostitutes as workers

Smarajit Jana (a health care professional) started a project in India to reduce AIDS spreading via prostitutes to the general population. Regarding prostitutes as sex workers resulted in mindset changes by various stakeholders, ie

- Jana informed the prostitutes

"...I sell services and so do you..."

Smarajit Jana as quoted by Madhusree Mukerjee, 2006

- By seeing prostitutes as simply workers earning a living (like other workers), the self-worth of the sex workers increased. Furthermore, he organised a debate with intellectuals on morality, etc. As the women grew in confidence and become empowered, Jana was able to let the women take over the project completely

- with starvation a more immediate threat than AIDS (if a prostitute insisted on using a condom, the customer could go elsewhere), there was a need for collective action, ie a workers' collective.

"...When an individual sex worker deals with a client, she is weak. To change the power equation, she needs the support of other sex workers..."

Smarajit Jana as quoted by Madhusree Mukerjee, 2006

- he convinced the local brothel madams, local politicians, police, pimps, gangsters, etc of the financial benefits to them of the sex workers using condoms (see Po later on in this section)

29. Flying people

The financial turnaround of Air New Zealand (with Ralph Norris as CEO), which took the company from the verge of bankruptcy to becoming one of the strongest airlines in the world, involved a change in the mindset of the staff. The staff's perception changed from a business about flying planes to one of transporting people. With this change in mindset, customer complaints fell by 63% at a time when complaints about competitors in the airline industry were rising.

30. Growth of service industry

The conventional mindset around 30 years ago was that the economy could not be based on the service industry - manufacturing had to be the foundation. Very few envisaged search engine optimisers or web designers or executive coaches or nanotechnologists, etc that are driving our current economic performance.

31. Pay for free TV shows

Most people in the Hollywood and TV studios thought that people would not pay for TV shows that were free. They were very wrong!!!! Annual sales of TV shows on DVD has grown from nothing to in 1999 to $US 4 billion in 2005 in USA. Viewers can also buy TV shows on demand from cable and satellite operators; view them on the Internet on platforms as Warner's In2TV and carry them around on the iPod or Sony PlayStation Portable.

32. 80:20 rule is out

On the Internet, the 98% rule applies. The old 80:20 rule stated that 80 percent of sales came from 20 percent of your sales staff; 80 percent on your problems came from 20 percent of your staff, etc.. Internet and niche sales work on the 98 percent rule, ie virtually all of the products are in demand and available at some time and at some level.

"...the culture of music has been transformed in the last 10 years, from the blockbuster hit and music store to the iTunes. It has a completely fragmented audience, but a rich music world. The same with books: the notion of 'out of print' is out of style. You can get anything you want on Amazon..."

Chris Anderson as quoted by Sheridan Winn, 2006

As the Internet makes everything available to everyone at any time, the bottlenecks that determined traditional supply and demand are disappearing. This is sometimes called the economics of abundance .

33. 3D not 2D

In 1857 there was a public competition to design Manhattan's Central Park. One of the design requirements was that cross-town traffic be permitted without obstructing the pastoral feel of the Park. This was considered impossible by designers except Olmsted and Vaux. They imagined that the Park was a three dimensional space and sank 4 roads 2.5 metres below the Park's surface.

34. Post Offices are shops

In early 1990's Australian Post Office shops (focussed on handling mail - collection, processing and delivery - and associated matters) were regarded as a serious liability, ie losing around $A150 million per year. Then someone suggested "Let's not compromise, let's say they're shops!!!!!!" This was followed by "If they are shops, they had better sell something"!!!!!!! Now Post Offices are very profitable by being franchised and selling a great range of products including stationery, gifts, mobile phones, etc in addition to handling the mail.

35. Appealing to the seductress

By tapping into women's desire to be attractive, their need to be wanted, their fear of aging, salespeople are able to sell perfume for around $3,000 - after a production cost of around $3!

36. Treating doctors as sages

Sales reps from pharmaceutical firms need to persuade doctors to prescribe certain drugs. Doctors feel threatened as medicine has become a bureaucracy and because the Internet allows patients to access medical information. To "win" the doctors, the sale reps need to provide quality information to the doctors so that they can display greater insight to their patients, and need to reinforce the image that doctors save lives and are not just more bureaucrats.

37. Computers are an appliance for the home

Change one's understanding of a product's meaning can lead to a change in its design and identity. The iMac was wrapped in friendly, translucent colours and ovoid forms. It was declared to be an appliance for the home. The message contained in the design hastened a transformation in how the public understood the device.

38. Four-minute mile

Before 1954, it was thought to be humanly impossible to run a mile in under 4 minutes. This was supported by research published in many medical journals. Yet Roger Bannister challenged this and ran a mile in under 4 minutes; within 18 months of this event, more than 45 athletes had achieved the same; over the next 5 decades, 500 other athletes have achieved the same feat. This achievement was more due to mindset changes than any dramatically improved training techniques, ie after Bannister's run, more athletics believed that they could repeat his performance.

39. Investing in innovation when times tough

Traditionally when times are tough, organisations start cost-cutting. On the other hand, difficult economic environments require more innovation, not pulling back. In 1958, despite a slumping economy, American Express launched its American Express card. Many people thought that the card was a terrible idea, especially as it would cannibalize their traveller's cheque business. This was an impeccably logical argument - that could not have been more wrong!!!!!!!

40. Move over big motor bikes

In the mid 1950s, Honda was best known in Japan for its 50cc Super Cub; it was designed as a powerful but easy-to-handle motorcycle that could wind its way through crowded Japanese streets for use as a delivery vehicle. When Honda targeted the U.S. motorbike market in 1958, the market was dominated by large motorbikes used for constant, high-speed, long distance road travel. Honda's initial aim was to produce a low price, full-size motorbike that would tap into the most price sensitive customers in USA. Its engineers produced the larger machines which had some problems like leaking oil and blowing their clutches. These engineers' experience was based upon developing bikes for short stop-and-go to bursts in congested streets and they didn't understand the demands on the constant, high speed, long distance travel bike. Furthermore, Honda had limited finance for this venture and it was competing against well-financed and established brands like Harley, Triumphs, etc. Then Honda personnel in the USA started using 50cc Super Cub as their own transportation around Los Angeles: they were reliable, cheap to run but regarded as unmarketable in the USA. Surprisingly, the daily exposure of the Super Cub generated much interest from individuals and retailers (not motorbike distributors, but sporting goods shops). With the continued success of the Super Cub, Honda redirected its efforts to this new market segment ‐ off-highway motorbikes. These low-priced Super Cubs were not targeted at traditional bike riders but were instead used for fun.

41. Solution looking for a problem

- the computer was initially designed for military use. Its multiple uses, from replacing the type writer to complex modelling, and innovations developed around it including the Internet, were not expected or anticipated or predicted.

- the laser was initially designed to split light beams and thought to have no relevance elsewhere. No one predicted its use in micro surgery, such as repairing of the detached eye retinas, etc

42. News papers to news brand

According to Rupert Murdoch (2008), there is social and commercial value in delivering good news and information in a cheap and timely way. It is claimed that newspapers (in their current format) are now an endangered species. The method of delivery may change, ie via the Internet (including blogs), and this has the potential to increase the audience many times. The traditional sources of revenue, such as classifieds, are disappearing, and journalists are facing new competition from the alternative sources of information. Previously journalists and newspapers had a monopoly and took their audience for granted. The days of one-size-fits-all are no longer applicable, with the defining digital trend in content allowing greater search sophistication via the Internet. Currently you can customize your information flow by country, or organisations or subject, ie you can satisfy your unique interest and get content delivered in the most convenient way. The challenge is to use the newspaper brand while allowing readers to personalize the news for themselves and then delivering it in a way they want.

43. Turning traditional craft into mass production

In the 18th century Josiah Wedgwood decided to break away from the mindset of the traditional small craftsman enterprise. He was willing to organize his firm around a brand and invented the idea of appealing to the masses by first selling directly to the wealthy. Additionally, he sent free samples to around 1,000 wealthy Europeans; over 50% of them ordered more goods. Based on his success with wealthy clients, he then sold to the masses. His sales force worked on commission. He redesigned Wedgwood's factories to handle the demand and the technology of making mass-produced pottery, by including specialized assembly lines and time-clock systems, ie

"... he practically invented the idea of standardized quality control, of innovative design for utilitarian products (his cauliflower teapot was a sensation), and even of health insurance (of a sort) for his workforce...... Wedgwood understood...... that a new class of customer and new kind of distribution enabled a new kind of organisation to thrive. Wedgwood didn't hire potters or people who had been apprenticed with potters. Instead, he hired the untrained, and he trained them himself. He realized that his way was a new way, and that it was easier to teach someone than to unteach them first. The Wedgwood pottery sold for four times as much as that made by small potters in the same region of England - because he made it and marketed it differently...... taking control over every element of his product - from the way it was made to the way it was delivered to the stores that displayed it - Wedgwood created the environment he needed to thrive...... this virtuous cycle enabled him to die with $ 44 million in his estate..."

In summary, Josiah Wedgwood

"...- created new ways of glazing new goods and novel items that people seek out

- signed his work

- increased pricing by 400 percent

- established high quality standards

- built a bigger factory and put it near a canal

- trained non-potters to join his workforce, and designed innovative ways to manage them

- organized the factory to reflect a separation of labour

- opened showrooms in London and changed the stock weekly

- focused on mass production

- sold to the richest people in the world, but avoided taking custom work except for items for heads of state..."

Seth Godin, 2007

44. Redesigning pay-as-you-wash

Merloni Ellettrodomestic (European white goods manufacturer) redesigned its industry. The industry had low margins, stable market share and little room for competitors to differentiate. Traditionally to survive firms focused on cutting costs and improving production efficiencies. Merloni redesigned the model to pay-as-you-wash. Users pay a flat fee for a washing machine plus a yearly lease/service fee plus extra payment depending on usage. In addition to the leasing initiative, Merloni invested in service centers that handle calls about faulty appliances. Furthermore, they fitted some machines with a device that linked the machine via the Internet to service sites so that service centers could be informed of problems when they occur. The benefits to consumers are smaller initial cash outlays, maintenance becomes easier, no responsibility for machine disposal, etc. On the other hand, for the manufacturer they got increased margins, a new income stream, and opportunities for service and enhancements, etc. For society, the benefits were that the manufacturer had responsibility for disposal which encouraged recycling.

45. E-recruiting (including e-lancing and e-labour)

The Internet has added another tool for recruitment. Social media sites, such as Facebook, Linkedin, blogs, Twitter, etc, are used to target advertising by using keywords that might help identify people the organisation wants to hire. Furthermore, placing ads on web pages where people are most likely to see them, and then direct them to sophisticated Web sites with video presentations designed to appeal to them has proven effective. This has at least 3 advantages over traditional recruitment procedures, ie

i) speed, eg it took Adidas 10 days to fill a position that traditional methods had not filled after 6 months

ii) costs , eg traditionally it would cost thousands of dollars to recruit someone; e-recruiting costs only a couple of hundred dollars

iii) quality , eg these methods can attract "passive" candidates (people who are not actively looking for new position but could be interested in changing jobs) as well as candidates actively looking for new position. For example, Linkedin it has access to around 50 million candidates

"...Adidas has managed to get these efficiencies in an approach......new technology to identify potential recruits, beefing up its website, leveraging its links to sport and athletes, and creates its own in-house recruitment agencies..."

Fiona Smith, 2010b

Furthermore, many freelancers are using the Internet, via social network sites, to generate and find work . It has been estimated (The Economist, 2010a) that there are around 12 million full-time, home-based freelancers and independent contractors in the USA. Companies, such as Guru, Elance, oDesk, LiveOps, etc are providing the Internet connections. For example, LiveOps uses virtual call centers for over 20,000 homeworkers in the USA; eDesk has 247,000 freelancers registered with them. This is referred to as "e-lancing" and was started with firms in rich countries using professionals in low-wage countries but now includes more professionals from the rich countries

46. Property developing is retailing

Most property developers focus on building a property and filling the building with tenants. Westfield (a successful world-wide mall developer that started in Australia), however, does not think like a traditional property developer. Rather it thinks like a retailer dealing with customers: with the co-existence of food, fashion (high and low) and entertainment in the mall . They focus on customers and products by conducting detailed research.

47 . Friends (TV sitcom)

Friends has been the dominant TV sitcom for 20+ years since it started in 1994.Yet based on a pilot run and market research, it was suggested that Friends would not be a successful TV show as it did not obey the conventional rules of comedy. Yet

"...between 1994 and its finale in 2004, Friends attracted audiences of between 20 and 29 m. in the USA. After its second season, it never left the Nielsen ratings top five. Later in its runs, when the world around it grew more threatening, Friends' appeal as a safe haven - a virtual Central Park - was so strong that its ratings increased 17% after September 11, 2001 attacks on New York City......the final episode of Friends drew nearly 52.5 m. viewers in the US, beaten only by the holy trinity of Seinfeld, Cheers and M*A*S*H as the most watched finale in American TV history..."

Andrew Harrison 2014

(Sources: Edward deBono, 1993; Gary Hamel, 2000; Peter Drucker, 1999a & 2001; Narelle Hooper, 2002; Leon Gettler et al, 2002; Piers Dudgeon, 2001; John Kotter, 2003; Wayne Mansfield, 2003a&b; Hunter G Hoffman, 2004; Harry Osman, 2004d; Karlon Hargroves et al, 2005; Gio Braidotti, 2005; Peter Senge et al, 2005; Patrick Dawson, 2005; Mark Lythogoe, 2005; Brent Schlender, 2005; Emily Ross et al, 2004; Edward deBono, 2005; Steven Segal, 2005; James Hall, 2006; Madhusree Mukerjee, 2006; Janne Ryan, 2006; Helen Trinca, et al, 2006; Geoffrey Colvin, 2006b; Marc Gunther, 2006; David Osborne , 1993; Sheridan Winn, 2006a; Jeanne Liedtka, 2006; Helen Trinca, 2006b; Joanne Gray, 2006; Dianne Coute, 2006; Roberto Verganti, 2007; Martyn Newman, 2007; Anne Fisher, 2008; Clayton Christensen et al, 2003; Nassim Taleb, 2007; Rupert Murdoch, 2008; Seth Godin, 2007; James Carlopio, 2010; Fiona Smith, 2010b; Robert Harley, 2010; The Economist, 2010a;Tania de Jong et al, 2010; Ron Clarke, 1999; Ed Catmull, 2014; Andrew Harrison 2014)

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