Some Extra Examples of Pos

Po: explode sugar bomb....................................for over 100 years Cadburys had been using the same formula for its most successful brand of chocolate (Dairy Milk). The main ingredients were fat, sugar, milk and cocoa; with sugar being over 50%. With the obesity crisis (caused by preference for unhealthy processed food that is quick, cheap and convenient) and a more health-conscious public, Cadburys wanted to reduce the sugar content to around 30% while maintaining the taste, texture, cosmetic look, etc of the original product. Its food scientists were successful in changing the formula by replacing most of the sugar with mainly fibre while maintaining taste, texture, etc (SBS, 2020a)

Po: zero energy cost......................................................the swing away from fossil fuel energy generation, like coal and gas-fired, to renewables, like solar, wind power, etc, is providing opportunities for community and households sharing energy they harness through renewable sources. With many households using renewable energy technology, like solar panels and storage batteries, they have the potential to supply excess power to the grid for use in other communities.

"...Ultimately, home owners should get to a position where they are producers of energy - where they become a generator producing excess energy, which then gets distributed to disadvantaged communities and other users, so that overall the price people pay for energy should be as close to zero as possible..."

Ben Hutt 2019

Also, using intelligent and predictive software systems to learn behaviours, like consumption patterns, of households and businesses, they can adjust supply of energy accordingly.

Po: don't own, rent....................................................consumers in the media/entertainment industry are changing from ownership to a subscription/streaming model for consumption of music, films, games, etc, eg Spotify (music), Netflix (videos), etc. There is a phethora of on-demand entertainment options, like subscription-based video on demand (SVOD) (Paul Smith et al 2019)

Po: make a product an essential item...................................during World War II, the US developed a list of essential items that were restricted in domestic use and deemed essential for the war effort. Sugar was on this list. Yet, it was an essential ingredient in Coca-Cola and its drink, Coke, was not on the essential list. So the the company offered to sell Coca-Cola at a large discount to soldiers serving overseas. In addition to candy and cigarettes, Coca-Cola became one of the most requested items that fighting soldiers wanted. Also, with US soldiers fighting in many different countries, it helped to internationalise the brand.

Po: going back to the future...........................................Coca-Cola started as pop soda where each drink was made individually. Using the latest technologies, it has returned to this personalised approach whereby pressing different buttons on a vending machine allows the addition of specific ingredients to your drink.

Po: a 21st century art form and not good curators of museum pieces.......................................................Australian Opera is using digital technology to modernise operas and attract new audiences, eg younger digital-savvy people. One of the benefits of using digital backdrops is that there is no need for the hands-on physical moving of stage props around (Michael Bailey 2019)

Po: automation to increase jobs.............................................automation today is used in a wide range of fields, like agriculture, mining, medical procedures, construction, bio security, companionship, etc. There is a concern that this will reduce people's jobs. This is thought to be in the short term with forecasts of 40% of jobs potentially being displaced in the short term, eg 75 million jobs displace global. However, in the long term

"...133 million new roles may emerge as companies shake up the division of labour between humans and machines, translating into an additional 85 million new jobs created by 2022..."

Futures of Jobs 2018 (World Economic Forum) as quoted by Adrian Turner 2019.

"...estimates that automation could boost Australia's productivity and national income by (up to) $ 2.2 trillion by 2030 and result in improved health and safety, the development of new products and services, new types of jobs and new business models..."

AlphaBeta as quoted by Adrian Turner 2019

Po: whole brain approach rather than slices..................................................by doing research on the whole brain rather than slices has changed our understanding of the brain and death.

"...the primary issue appears to be oxygenation. Mammalian brains are tangled knots of arteries and capillaries, each of which is......circulating blood (and with it, oxygen and nutrients) throughout the organ. In slicing an entire brain into extremely thin leaves of tissues, the delicate interior architecture was decimated..."

Matthew Shaer 2019

Additionally, rather than freezing or immersing the whole brain in formaldehyde, they tried a technique called perfusion

"...leverage on the existing vascular network - it mimics the flow of blood through the organ. The resulting fixation is more uniform and vastly faster than traditional methods. And if done soon enough, it can prevent cellular decomposition..."

Matthew Shaer 2019

"...you don't see any breakdown of tissue; you don't see any bacterial growth......everything just sort of gets put on pause..."

Art Belanger as quoted by Matthew Shaer 2019

So rather than slicing the brain, keep the entire brain and perfuse it with haemoglobin-rich fluid standing in a preservative to keep the brain alive outside the body.

"...life is not powered by electricity alone. It is powered by blood and oxygen, by gases and acids, by any possible intricate symphony of cells which die and regenerate and evolve and grow as we do..."

Matthew Shaer 2019

"...collectively, the research proved brain death wasn't a single event. It happened in gradual steps. Precisely because it was gradual, scientists found they could delay or reverse part of the process altogether...... the brain was far more resilient than had been understood. It could, for example, recover neuronal function after half an hour of oxygen and blood deprivation......it could be taken off-line and turned back on again..."

Matthew Shaer 2019

Po: carbon capture and storage (CCS) part of the solution.......................................CCS was unsuccessful in saving the coal fired power industry. It is now focusing on capturing, storing and in some cases utilising, the carbon dioxide that will be emitted by producers of cement, plastics and steel, even if those manufacturers were to source 100% of their power from renewables.

"...CCS must play a role if the world is to meet the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement and limit global warming to below 2°..."

Peter Ker 2019

Po: wool as wetsuits............................................................wool is being used to create performance clothing (including wetsuits) for this 36th edition of the America's Cup. Wool is recognised as a tailoring fabric and is becoming a performance fabric as well, ie something that you can sweat in. Merino wool is breathable, soft and holds moisture, ie wicks away moisture from the skin naturally. Also it is an active fibre, ie

"...it adjusts to the temperature of the wearer, keeping them cool or warmer as need be and it's also UV-resistance..."

Lauren Sams 2019

The wetsuits are lined with Merino wool.

Wool is good for outdoor adventure sports as its

"...stain resistant, its light weight, it naturally regulates your temperature......wool is a renewable material that's 100% natural......biodegradable. It can be re-cycled and reused..."

Lauren Sams 2019

Po: making the old into new......................................................the fashion industry is using a concept called a circular economy based on 3 sustainable principles, ie rescue, reclaim and reuse. Materials like old fire hoses, coffee sacks and leather offcuts are creating new luxury products including belts, bags and phone cases. For example, firehoses: firefighters indicated that they are unable to repair damage rubber hoses

"...these hoses were made from nitrile rubber, a highly durable material used by some of luxury fashion's biggest houses for their accessories......transforming them first into belts, then bags, phone cases and wallets..."

Lauren Sams 2019

Other examples include transforming discarded coffee sacks into shopping bags and torn parachute silk to line handbags; making packaging materials from old shoe boxes, contact lens envelopes and tea sacks; left over leather is cut into puzzles-sized pieces that can be easily woven into bags (this allows for a worn or stained piece to be easily replaced with a new piece rather than throwing away the whole bag)

Po: stone paper..............................................................................making paper from

"...construction rubble otherwise destined for landfill, which is retrieved from building sites and pulverised before becoming transformed into paper......requires none of the tree felling or intense water use of traditional wood pulp paper..."

Michael Bailey 2019a

Even though it is considered the more expensive, eg its A5 note books cost around A$ 25 while the traditional A5 notebooks is only a couple of dollars; it is a status symbol, eg eco-friendly.
Other benefits include cutting and shredding more smoothly and easier than regular paper, ie no bulk fibre to get through.

In addition to saving trees and large quantities of water, it uses less energy than traditional paper.

NB "...Conventional paper makers mix water with bleach to turn brown pulp into a bright-white substance; calcium carbonate used to produce stone paper is naturally white..."

Michael Bailey 2019a

Po: everything is recyclable.............................................................need to create a circular economy where nothing is wasted and everything is recyclable, ie these materials become durable, reusable, valuable and sometimes even beautiful. Using plastics as an example. Its waste can end up in the oceans, ie

"...8 million ton a year..."

Ocean Conservancy as quoted by Leila Abboud 2019

"...roughly a quarter of the 348 million tons of annual plastic production worldwide......goes into packaging..."

Plastic Europe and Ellen MacArthur Foundation as quoted by Leila Abboud 2019

Plastic comes in the form of packaging, utensils and has its advantages, ie

"...plastic is light, versatile, cheap, durable - allowing companies to maximise shelf life while minimising manufacturing and transport costs..."

Leila Abboud 2019

Most plastic goes into packaging. Most of it is used once and discarded, not recycled.

There are a range of views on this topic, ie make materials like plastic more recyclable to change the way we buy and consume products.

"...each approach would have radically different implications in terms of costs, benefits and convenience, both the companies and consumers..."

Leila Abboud 2019

In the 1950s the era of convenience started with many firms producing disposable items like nappies, garbage bags, styrofoam plates, eating utensils, etc.

"...roughly 6% of global fossil fuel consumption goes into making plastics and that is expected to increase..."

International Energy Agency has quoted by Leila Abboud 2019

Some concerns include

- technology to recycle plastics does not exist

- designers and marketers have concerns about the quality and looks of recycled plastic

- dealing with the recycling system, eg convincing waste management companies that there is value in different waste products

- as plastic is recycled, it degrades in quality

- some replacement products for plastic take weeks to decompose

"...the deeper you delve into the problem of plastic packaging, the more you start to realise that there is very little consensus on solutions. Every answer has a rebuttal. Recycling is good! No, it's broken. Paper is the answer! It will never work as well is plastic. Technology will save us! It will take years to be commercially viable. Taxes and regulations are needed! Government intervention is ineffective..."

Leila Abboud 2019

Po: no more waste...........................................................................as concepts like recycling, disposability, reduction of the environmental impact, etc are not seen as a long-term solutions, ie

"...we need to completely rethink our relationship to products and how we shop..."

Tom Szaky as quoted by Leila Abboud 2019

Recycling has not been a successful initiatives. For example, large organisations:

- Coca-Cola recycles around 9% of its plastic packaging
- Unilever recycles less than 1%
- Nestle uses 2%

(source: Leila Abboud 2019)

"...around 8.3 billion tonnes of plastic has been produced since the 1950s but research shows that only 9% has been recycled. The remainder has ended up in landfills, the oceans and let loose in the environment..."

Leila Abboud 2019

Need to create a circular economy where nothing is wasted and everything is recycled.

Need to think about the supply chain and product design so less packaging is needed

"...designing it from the outset so as to maximise the chances that it will be recycled, slimming it down to use less plastic or getting rid of combinations of materials that are hard to recycle..."

Leila Abboud 2019

Another alternative is to reduce the volume of plastic used and use replacements like biology-derived materials such as corn, sugarcane, potato starch or cellulose from seaweed or trees (cellulose-based fibre). Some other examples include

- coated painted products

- wood

- cardboard

NB need to shift

"...packaging from being a waste product owned by the consumer to an asset that belongs to the manufacturer..."

Tom Szaky has quoted by Leila Abboud 2019

One group is delivering a concentrated household cleaner, laundry soap and body wash by mail. These can be diluted at home, thus reducing plastic and transportation costs

NB

"...1 ton of food waste has the impact of 3 tons of packaging waste when it comes to climate change..."

Dave Lewis as quoted by Leila Abboud 2019

Po: man-made diamonds...................................................................with the ongoing problems in the diamond industry, eg diamonds used to finance wars (blood diamonds), child labour, transparency, traceability, etc, there has been a move to encourage people, including celebrities (like Penelope Cruz), to wear lab-grown gemstones that are created in a sustainable way, with a minimal carbon footprint; they are considerably cheaper than the mined counterparts. The traditionalists call them synthetic diamonds (source: Sarah Royce-Greensill 2018)

Po: waste into luxury items................................................................fishermen's wives in Kenya and southern Brazil have transformed fish skin into luxurious leather bags and cuffs

"...fish skin is tougher than cow leather because the fibres run in multiple directions, creating a more solid and durable product..."

Thin Lei Win 2019

Po: do more with less...................................................................................this involves developing a concept called minimal manning, ie replacing specialist workers with problem-solving generalists. Two examples

i) in the airline industry, they are looking for staff who are "cross utilised agents", ie capable of ticketing, marshalling and servicing aircraft, and handling luggage.

ii) in the online shoe company, Zappos. It discarded

"...job titles a few years back, employees are encouraged to take on multiple roles by joining circles that tackle different responsibilities..."

Jerry Useem 2019

This requires a very different mindset from what is traditionally expected in the workplace, ie experience, etc..

With increasing and cheaper use of technology, like AI, etc, the trend towards minimal manning is expected to continue.

(for more details, see minimal manning in other parts of this knowledge base)

Po: a competitor is the customer......................................... Sir Frank Lowry, co-founder of Westfield Corporation (worldwide retail shopping malls owner and operator), has described online shopping as both a competitor and a customer. For example, Apple is their most profitable tenant yet it is a platform for online shopping. Westfield is offering a digital presence in its malls.

Po: from flea market to mainstream...........................................Amazon dominates the book business, ie it sells over half the books sold in the US

"...Selling books helps Amazon become a $1 trillion business but the company never checks the authenticity, much less the quality, of what it sells..."

David Streitfeld 2019

Owing to Amazon's disregard for authenticity, the sale of counterfeit books or fakes surged.

Additionally, the company has been reactive rather than proactive in dealing with the issue, ie often only acting after a complaint.

Po: do more with less.................................................................minimal manning involves replacing specialised workers with problem-solving generalists. Sometimes these positions are called "hybrid jobs" or "super jobs", ie

"...positions combining tasks once performed by people in two or more traditional roles..."

Jerry Useem 2019

For example, in the airline industry, they are looking for staff who are "cross utilised agents", ie capable of ticketing, marshalling and servicing aircraft and handling luggage. Another example is the online shoe company Zappos, which discarded

"...job titles a few years back; employees are encouraged to take on multiple roles by joining circles that tackle different responsibilities..."

Jerry Useem 2019

Sometimes this is called mental agility, ie

"...companies are looking for......someone who can be all, do all, and pivot on a dime to solve any problem..."

Laszlo Bock as quoted by Jerry Useem 2019

Automation has sped up this trend because it

"...usurps routine tasks, leading employees to handle non-routine and unanticipated..."

Jerry Useem 2019

It is similar to rapid switching of attention (sometimes incorrectly called multi-tasking) in a "fluid task environment". This involves understanding the limits of working memory (raw processing power) which is part of the fluid intelligence that peaks in our early 20s. In contrast, crystallised intelligence (accumulated facts and possession of know-how) peaks in our 50s
Minimal manning requires fluid more than crystalline intelligence.

It is interesting to note that conscientiousness is not a desirable quality for minimal manning. Normally it is an overwhelming predictor of positive job performance. A more important criteria is openness to new experience which is

"...a personality trait that is normally not a major job performance predictor and that, in certain contexts, roughly translates to distractability..."

Jerry Useem 2019

NB People who have this trait, ie being open to new experiences, tend to be less focused on doing things right, and more likely to wonder whether they are doing the right thing.
The ideal profile for minimal manning is

"...high in fluid intelligence, low in experience, not terribly conscientious, open to potential distractions..."

Jerry Useem 2019

This is very different from the traditional approach to employing people, and has ramifications around how to focus on elements like grit, ie

"...a mindset, much valued these days in educational and professional circles, that allows people to commit tenaciously to doing one thing well......putting your head down, blocking out distractions, committing over the course of many years to a chosen path..."

Jerry Useem 2019

Other traditional-valued employee qualities that are being challenged include dedication (being more important than raw talent), doggedness, conscientious, etc.

The implication is that, in this new environment, hiring people based on their work experience is not encouraged as expertise can become an obstacle.

"...The more we invest in building and emblemishing a system of knowledge......the more adverse we become to unbuilding it..."

Matthew Fisher and Frank Keil as quoted by Jerry Useem 2019

There are limitations to the new focus on intelligent generalists.

"...the devaluation of expertise opens up ample room for different sorts of mistakes - and sometimes creates a kind of helplessness..."

Jerry Useem 2019

For the generalist to be successful, technology is important and must be user-friendly.

There is a new world in which

"...mental agility and raw cognitive speed eclipse hard work expertise..."

Jerry Useem 2019

In this world, older, less adaptable workers, slower learners and those less socially adept will be disadvantaged.

The trend towards a minimal manning is expected to continue as the cost of computing falls, artificial intelligence becomes more competent, disappearing types of work increases, etc.
NB Sometimes ideas take time to develop: eg the viability of aircraft carriers was not obvious to military planners in the 1920s. Yet through a process of trial and error that resulted in technical changes like adding catapults, arresting wires, re-configuring flight decks, etc turning an interesting idea into reality

Po: conventional environmental campaigning is ineffective...............................................................................................this resulted in the development of Extinction Rebellion (grassroots mass environmental movement)

This movement realised that

"...conventional environmental campaigning, with its lobbying, petitioning, and reluctance to frighten people, had largely failed: the world has emitted as much carbon in the last 30 years as in the previous two centuries..."

Martin Fletcher 2019

Their model is mass, non-violent civil disobedience to change the public's hearts and minds and is based on 3 principles

i) through disruption and breaking of laws you get attention from the media (including social media) and the public

ii) through personal sacrifice, ie willing to be arrested and go to prison (this sends a message to the public to appreciate your determination toe taken seriously about what you are advocating.

iii) be respectful to others (including the public and police)

The first principle gets you public exposure and awareness; the second, shows that you are fearless; the third demonstrates respect. These are all important attributes in changing attitudes and behaviours.

Po:- beauty takes many forms.............it is now being recognised that all types of bodies can be sexy. This is a challenge the traditional marketing approach of the perfect body, skin, make-up, etc in the sale of products like lingerie. This change is being

"... fuelled by women who believe sexy is embracing their bodies, regardless of size or shape......all types of bodies to be their own version of sexy......a shift to more choices to include different races and ethnicities in models..."

Ellie Silverman 2018

This is sometimes called body-positivity and revolves around comfort and a wider sense of what is beautiful

Po:- treat injured workers like injured elite sports people.................."...it has been found that intense treatment provided early in an injury is a key factor in professional athletes recovering faster than injured workers..."

Alex Gluyas 2019

Despite workers and athletes sustaining similar musculoskeletal injuries, the treatment being received is vastly different. For example, workers injured might see a doctor a day later, who tells them to go home and rest. Based on experience with elite athletes, early intense treatment is better for physical and mental recovery, ie focus on recovery first, getting treatment, not rest

Po:- buy one, give one...................."Two Good" is a social enterprise that provides meals for women who have experienced domestic violence. It is based on providing positive memories around food and understanding the therapeutic experience of cooking. One of the most debilitating things about domestic violence is the impact on a person's self worth. By providing wholesome, well-presented, packaged, good quality food they are providing dignity, self-respect and worth to these women. Too often people in disadvantaged positions are given something that is substandard, or it feels like it's a hand-out. Also, they are providing employment opportunities for these women in their own organisation, ie 12 week training course. In addition to the skills gained, this increases their self-worth and belief in themselves. Later on these women enter the long-term employment workforce via specially selected employment pathway partners. They are expanding into lifestyle products and getting more partners, eg clothing labels selling clothes, for each one sold, one is donated to a woman in a refuge; a credit card organisation and property developer, each wants to fund the delivery of 20,000 meals to women, etc. Ideally they want

"...to be serving meals in every women's shelter in the country..."

Bob Caslick et al 2018

Po:- pre-owned sales or secondary markets.................many industries don't just sell new products, they sell products that have been owned and/or second-hand, preowned, pre-loved, etc; some of the industries include clothes, automobiles, furniture, etc and now watches.

Po:- think beyond the building..........................................architecture is a social service and it starts with social responsibility, ie

"...humanism of buildings, for designing places where people's movements intersect and spaces engender a feeling of community..."

Carme Pinos as quoted by Stephen Todd 2018

An example is the Australian Architect Collective (Assemble) as part of the Living Cities Forum approach that embodies this concept (including the contemporary and historic should not be in competition). New structures need to inscribe themselves into the established urban narrative built up slowly over time, not detach themselves from it. New should not be

"...parachuted in empty icons that speak more to the architect's ego and the developer's budget than to any real sense of place..."

Carme Pinos as quoted by Stephen Todd 2018

Assemble is about creative collectivity where people of different professional backgrounds like architecture, anthropology, philosophy, history, economics, etc come together to look for unique opportunities  in each endeavour and seeing it through their own eyes. It advocates community, inclusiveness and universal connection; connecting architecture to humanity, ie connecting architecture to humanity and empowering communities and encouraging inclusivity through architecture.

"...architecture is not about sculpture. It's more like film, the architect is more like a film director. We must have a script before we can begin. The script talks about humans and sensations, about memories and experiences..."

Carme Pinos as quoted by Stephen Todd 2018

"...As architects, town planners and governments search for reasonable means to increase the density of Australian cities without detriment to quality of life......reflects a broader trend in architectural practice toward generosity, integrity and community in the face of exponential population growth...... a ground up approach to regeneration, city planning and development in opposition to corporate gentrification..."

Stephen Todd 2018

Po:- small businesses frustrated with accessing finance......................................... many small businesses have problems obtaining finance from traditional sources, like banks. This has encouraged the development of new entrants in the finance and fin-tech space like Prospa which offers same-day approval of loans with funds delivered within 24 hours (Julie-Anne Sprague, 2018).

Po: - restaurant owner in the kitchen...............................most restaurant owners are not in the kitchen and are out-front with the guests focusing on customer service and "controlling the till". But one successful restaurant owner was the chef and focused on the kitchen, and keeping an eye on food/meal preparation, ie waste, cost of ingredients, speed of service, etc. By minimising waste, using the most cost effective ingredients, etc,  she ran a successful business for decades in a very competitive industry. Also, most employed chefs are more focused on their cuisine, presentation, etc for taste and cosmetic looks, rether than taking a commercial approach, ie producing the most cost-effective meals. Furthermore, chefs have a notorious reputation for being fickle employees. Thus a high turnover of chefs can result in inconsistent meal preparation, etc which can adversely affect the reputation of the restaurant. 

Po: - too big to win.......................................the sheer size of the iconic investment powerhouse's (Berkshire Hathaway) is making it difficult (in 2019) to maintain its exceptional financial performance. For example, every working day US$ 100 m. comes in from its subsidiaries, dividends, interest, etc and its assets are worth around $US 700 b. (with $US 112 b. in cash and cash like investments). This means only vast investments can meaningfully improve its performance, eg the number of publicly-traded stocks it can buy is no more than 100. Buying companies outright is no easier. For example,

"... A billion-dollar company that immediately increases in value by 50% hardly helps at all: making $US 500  m. sounds great and $US 1 b. sounds like a big investment but $US 500 m. is less than a 10th of a percent as a contribution to Berkshire's assets..." 

Robert Armstrong et al 2019

Maybe a way to handle the sheer size  is to get smaller, ie pay dividends and/or sell business units and/or buy back shares, ie 

"...why not get smaller, so that Berkshire can get back to producing outsized returns..." 

Robert Armstrong et al 2019

Berkshire has started to reduce the company's massive pile of shareholder equity by buying back shares at the right price. It could have to buy back $US 100 b. of its shares!!!!

Po: - hot dogs as a gesture
.........staff at one of the world's most famous fine-dining restaurants (EMP) in Manhattan overheard some diners stating how they had enjoyed eating at the upmarket restaurants in New York but had not tried a New York street hot dog. The restaurant purchased a hot dog from the street 

"...and plated it beautifully and served it to diner as a surprise course..." 

Will Guidara as quoted by Dan Stapleton 2018 

This resulted in developing the concept of "dreamweavers" who are tasked with researching guests before they arrive and imagining ways to personalise their meals and experience at the restaurant as "legends". To encourage authenticity, there is no set formula for legends: some legends take shape weeks before guests arrive; others are conjured up on the day; others come to life as a result of overheard dining room conversations 

Po: - no factory farming..................in 2009 an urban-based husband (writer) and wife (real estate agent) who had no experience in duck farming, 
decided to do it differently, ie no factory farming, in Victoria (Australia). They wanted to grow the best tasting, most flavour-some ducks in a free-range environment. They planted fruit trees for shade and used fallen fruit as food; built plastic paddling pools for the ducks; fed them on grain and leftover strawberries from local farmers. They employed a semi-retired dairy farmer to help. 

"...they now have about 2,500 Athisylesbury and Pekins waddling freely and supplying about 250 ducks each week to top restaurants including Brae, Lume and Royal Mail Hotel. Lauded chefs such as Dan Hunter, Phil Wood, Robin Wickens and Andrew McConnell ordered direct.....also supply two butchers plus a small number in Hong Kong. The ducks are slaughtered at 14 weeks, much later than factory-reared ducks which are processed at six weeks..." 

Pip Coates 2018 

Po: - turn to nature for inspiration.........the 3 Nobel prize winners for chemistry (2018) tapped into the power of evolutionary biology to design molecules with a range of practical uses. When studying proteins, the scientists first attempted "rational design", ie employing logic in the knowledge of how proteins function to try to build new enzymes (proteins that act as catalysts for chemical reactions). On the other hand, 

"...enzymes are large, complicated molecules - some consisting of thousands of amino acids - and it is hard to figure out how a shift in one twist of the molecule affects how it works..." 

Kenneth Chang 2018 

The scientists used their understanding of the process of evolution to breed molecules like you breed animals. This is called "directed evolution" research, ie inserted the gene that produced the enzyme required for study into fast reproducing bacteria; with the mutations of the gene, they examined how well variations of the enzyme worked; then chose the one that worked best; repeated the process (just as evolution chooses the survival of the fittest over succeeding generations).  By the third generation, they were able to produce an enzyme more than 200 times as effective as the one started with. 

This led to DNA shuffling, ie cut apart different versions of a gene and mix pieces into a new variant, ie, the molecular equivalent of genetic mixing of offspring of two animals. This work has led to stain-removing enzymes in detergents, promising advances in the production of bio-fuels and medical treatments. 

Po: - it is who you know rather than what you know.................a relatively unknown, successful Japanese businessman (Tsuyoshi Matsushita) used his networks to convince superstars to endorse his products. He convinced Cristiano Ronaldo (5 times FIFI soccer player of the year) 
to endorse his SIXPAD (abdominal muscle-training device) and Madonna (Queen of the Pop) to endorse a range of his skin-care products, etc.. Initially he was advised that it would be impossible to get these superstars to sponsor his products but he used his networks to make contact and get their support.

"...
 
Ronaldo's TV advertisements for SIXPAD have become well known in Japan, and MTG has sold more than 1 million units of the device in the past three years, with the company's revenue more than doubling after the product was launched..." 

Kurumi Mori et al, 2018

Po: - military as the foundation of innovation..............................at 18 years of age, young Israelis undertake several years of National Service. During this time they have to make hard decisions and emerge mature beyond their years. Most of the workers in the Israeli's high tech sector learn their tech and business skills while atserving in the Israeli Defence Forces. 

"... In other words, the training that the IDF gives its soldiers to prepare them for the battlefield. Also prepares them for business..." 

Frank Lowry 2018 

Po: rapid urbanisation without shantytowns.........................China has had to handle the greatest igration in human history, ie between 2000 and 2015 alone more than 270 m. people have moved from the Chinese countryside to urban areas. Despite the rapid urbanisation, China has avoided the slums and shanty towns that plague other developing countries. It is estimated that by 2030 China will have an urban population of 1 b. (from around 730 m. in 2013). 

"...after having been a rural society and economy for millennia, China is on track to achieve in just 50 years the level urbanisation that the USA took a full century..." 

Dinny McMahon 2018 

The urbanisation of China started with the mass migration in the 1990s. Before that it was not encouraged, ie in 1987 on the eve of the economic reform, around 20% of Chinese lived in urban areas; by 2001 around 40% of the Chinese were living in cities; by 2013 around half the population was living in urban areas. 

The key to China's success has been the scale and speed at which it built infrastructure, like new roads, ports, power plants, cities, etc. S ome examples 

- cities like Shanghai in 20 years have absorbed 10 m. people; during this time it has built the world's longest subway system which is almost 60% bigger than New York's; 

- in 2012 China was opening 3 new power stations a week 

- people, freight, coal, etc had to compete for space on the country's railways. Usually people were given low priority. More recently China has spent billions of dollars building a high-speed railway network for people from scratch. Today this is celebrated as one of the great achievements of China's transportation system. 

"...Urbanisation - the construction of new housing and infrastructure - has been the driving force behind the Chinese economy for close to 2 decades. It has created demand the massive volumes of steel, cement, and glass; for the ships that bring iron ore from overseas; the power plans and coalmines needed by steel mills; and for the machinery that is needed in construction sites..." 

Dinny McMahon 2018

Linked with urbanisation and industrialisation was agricultural modernisation, ie

"...the former creates jobs that pulls migrants into the cities, and the latter creates migrants by pushing people off farms that no longer need them..." 

Dinny McMahon 2018

On the other hand, urbanisation can support growth and not necessarily drive it (World Bank). 

This addiction to non-stop infrastructure growth has led to some epic scales of waste, eg vacant new cities like Tieling in Liaoning . Also, there are plans for new cities and new districts which will be sufficient to house around 3.3 b. people, ie more than double China's total population. However, the migration from rural areas started to slow in the mid-2010s. 

Po: poo is a zoo........the traditional approach was that organisms in the bowel were contaminants that needed to be cleaned out. Recent research is indicating otherwise, ie the colon is 

"...no longer......seen simply as a conduit for waste with few other functions. It has become the site of the gut biome, a major engine to health. ..."

Jill Margo, 2018 

"...Unlike genetics, the microbiome is something we can change and manipulate. We need to understand gut bacteria and how imbalances occur..." 

Professor Emad El-Omar as quoted by Jill Margo, 2018 

Research is showing that there is a gut-brain access; with the biome being another organ, ie 

"...it is as heavy as the brain and as metabolically active as the liver. It is the interface between our genetics and our environment - the link we have long been looking for..." 

Professor Emad El-Omar as quoted by Jill Margo, 2018 

"...poo is a perfect proxy for the state of colon where a large, busy community of microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, resides. These tiny tenants of the bowel are constantly interacting with each other and with their host. Together with their genes and their byproducts, they form what is commonly called the gut biome. Each person's biome is as unique as their fingerprints. It's also powerful because it contains more microbes than a person has cells in their body......Trillions of tiny organisms live in the warm, moist nutrient-rich environment of the human colon. This is a busy community with bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microbes intermingling, reducing the byproducts and interacting with their host......some say the gut biome is the new frontier in medicine and most agree it can exert significant influence on human health. One way it does this is to cross into the bloodstream. Microscopic organisms or their byproducts traverse the colon wall and once launched into the bloodstream can travel anywhere to do good or cause harm......little microbe communities exist in every nook and cranny of the human body......the one in the colon is probably the biggest and is thought to exert the greatest influence on our health..." 

Jill Margo, 2018 

It is expected that biome will be used for diagnosis, treatment and prevention, ie 

"...An analysis of a poo sample will not only be able to estimate a person's risk of disease, from diabetes to depression, but will be able to help them to restore the health of their biome and minimise those risks..." 

Jill Margo, 2018 

Some examples 

using faecal capsules and transplants can cause some patients to take on the physical and mental traits of their donors, such as body shape and health issues, including mental health issues like depression, anxiety, etc 

studies of bacteria in a person's gut using blood, urine, stool and saliva sample and using artificial intelligence to recommend what foods will reduce the chance of diseases like Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, etc 

handling a range of health issues like chronic fatigue syndrome, ulcerative colitis, melanoma, colon cancer, diabetes, etc 

gut bacteria drives the formation of thin-walled blood vessels in the brain that cause strokes and seizures 

Some challenges include 

unable to culture most of the gut's microbes

- to ensure that pathogens like HIV, hepatitis, salmonella, etc are excluded

- storage of biome

- matching the microbial profiles of donors and recipients, ie personalising treatment

- identifying products from microbes that can be absorbed across the gut, enter the bloodstream and can potentially influence the body's chemistry and immune systems
 

Not all the above examples were generated by using the Po technique 

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