Some Extra Examples of Pos

Po:- beauty takes many is now being recognised that all types of bodies can be sexy. This is a challenge the traditional marketing approach of the perfect body, skin, make-up, etc in the sale of products like lingerie. This change is being

"... fuelled by women who believe sexy is embracing their bodies, regardless of size or shape......all types of bodies to be their own version of sexy......a shift to more choices to include different races and ethnicities in models..."

Ellie Silverman 2018

This is sometimes called body-positivity and revolves around comfort and a wider sense of what is beautiful

Po:- treat injured workers like injured elite sports people.................." has been found that intense treatment provided early in an injury is a key factor in professional athletes recovering faster than injured workers..."

Alex Gluyas 2019

Despite workers and athletes sustaining similar musculoskeletal injuries, the treatment being received is vastly different. For example, workers injured might see a doctor a day later, who tells them to go home and rest. Based on experience with elite athletes, early intense treatment is better for physical and mental recovery, ie focus on recovery first, getting treatment, not rest

Po:- buy one, give one...................."Two Good" is a social enterprise that provides meals for women who have experienced domestic violence. It is based on providing positive memories around food and understanding the therapeutic experience of cooking. One of the most debilitating things about domestic violence is the impact on a person's self worth. By providing wholesome, well-presented, packaged, good quality food they are providing dignity, self-respect and worth to these women. Too often people in disadvantaged positions are given something that is substandard, or it feels like it's a hand-out. Also, they are providing employment opportunities for these women in their own organisation, ie 12 week training course. In addition to the skills gained, this increases their self-worth and belief in themselves. Later on these women enter the long-term employment workforce via specially selected employment pathway partners. They are expanding into lifestyle products and getting more partners, eg clothing labels selling clothes, for each one sold, one is donated to a woman in a refuge; a credit card organisation and property developer, each wants to fund the delivery of 20,000 meals to women, etc. Ideally they want

" be serving meals in every women's shelter in the country..."

Bob Caslick et al 2018

Po:- pre-owned sales or secondary markets.................many industries don't just sell new products, they sell products that have been owned and/or second-hand, preowned, pre-loved, etc; some of the industries include clothes, automobiles, furniture, etc and now watches.

Po:- think beyond the building..........................................architecture is a social service and it starts with social responsibility, ie

"...humanism of buildings, for designing places where people's movements intersect and spaces engender a feeling of community..."

Carme Pinos as quoted by Stephen Todd 2018

An example is the Australian Architect Collective (Assemble) as part of the Living Cities Forum approach that embodies this concept (including the contemporary and historic should not be in competition). New structures need to inscribe themselves into the established urban narrative built up slowly over time, not detach themselves from it. New should not be

"...parachuted in empty icons that speak more to the architect's ego and the developer's budget than to any real sense of place..."

Carme Pinos as quoted by Stephen Todd 2018

Assemble is about creative collectivity where people of different professional backgrounds like architecture, anthropology, philosophy, history, economics, etc come together to look for unique opportunities  in each endeavour and seeing it through their own eyes. It advocates community, inclusiveness and universal connection; connecting architecture to humanity, ie connecting architecture to humanity and empowering communities and encouraging inclusivity through architecture.

"...architecture is not about sculpture. It's more like film, the architect is more like a film director. We must have a script before we can begin. The script talks about humans and sensations, about memories and experiences..."

Carme Pinos as quoted by Stephen Todd 2018

"...As architects, town planners and governments search for reasonable means to increase the density of Australian cities without detriment to quality of life......reflects a broader trend in architectural practice toward generosity, integrity and community in the face of exponential population growth...... a ground up approach to regeneration, city planning and development in opposition to corporate gentrification..."

Stephen Todd 2018

Po:- small businesses frustrated with accessing finance......................................... many small businesses have problems obtaining finance from traditional sources, like banks. This has encouraged the development of new entrants in the finance and fin-tech space like Prospa which offers same-day approval of loans with funds delivered within 24 hours (Julie-Anne Sprague, 2018).

Po: - restaurant owner in the kitchen...............................most restaurant owners are not in the kitchen and are out-front with the guests focusing on customer service and "controlling the till". But one successful restaurant owner was the chef and focused on the kitchen, and keeping an eye on food/meal preparation, ie waste, cost of ingredients, speed of service, etc. By minimising waste, using the most cost effective ingredients, etc,  she ran a successful business for decades in a very competitive industry. Also, most employed chefs are more focused on their cuisine, presentation, etc for taste and cosmetic looks, rether than taking a commercial approach, ie producing the most cost-effective meals. Furthermore, chefs have a notorious reputation for being fickle employees. Thus a high turnover of chefs can result in inconsistent meal preparation, etc which can adversely affect the reputation of the restaurant. 

Po: - too big to win.......................................the sheer size of the iconic investment powerhouse's (Berkshire Hathaway) is making it difficult (in 2019) to maintain its exceptional financial performance. For example, every working day US$ 100 m. comes in from its subsidiaries, dividends, interest, etc and its assets are worth around $US 700 b. (with $US 112 b. in cash and cash like investments). This means only vast investments can meaningfully improve its performance, eg the number of publicly-traded stocks it can buy is no more than 100. Buying companies outright is no easier. For example,

"... A billion-dollar company that immediately increases in value by 50% hardly helps at all: making $US 500  m. sounds great and $US 1 b. sounds like a big investment but $US 500 m. is less than a 10th of a percent as a contribution to Berkshire's assets..." 

Robert Armstrong et al 2019

Maybe a way to handle the sheer size  is to get smaller, ie pay dividends and/or sell business units and/or buy back shares, ie 

"...why not get smaller, so that Berkshire can get back to producing outsized returns..." 

Robert Armstrong et al 2019

Berkshire has started to reduce the company's massive pile of shareholder equity by buying back shares at the right price. It could have to buy back $US 100 b. of its shares!!!!

Po: - hot dogs as a gesture
.........staff at one of the world's most famous fine-dining restaurants (EMP) in Manhattan overheard some diners stating how they had enjoyed eating at the upmarket restaurants in New York but had not tried a New York street hot dog. The restaurant purchased a hot dog from the street 

"...and plated it beautifully and served it to diner as a surprise course..." 

Will Guidara as quoted by Dan Stapleton 2018 

This resulted in developing the concept of "dreamweavers" who are tasked with researching guests before they arrive and imagining ways to personalise their meals and experience at the restaurant as "legends". To encourage authenticity, there is no set formula for legends: some legends take shape weeks before guests arrive; others are conjured up on the day; others come to life as a result of overheard dining room conversations 

Po: - no factory 2009 an urban-based husband (writer) and wife (real estate agent) who had no experience in duck farming, 
decided to do it differently, ie no factory farming, in Victoria (Australia). They wanted to grow the best tasting, most flavour-some ducks in a free-range environment. They planted fruit trees for shade and used fallen fruit as food; built plastic paddling pools for the ducks; fed them on grain and leftover strawberries from local farmers. They employed a semi-retired dairy farmer to help. 

"...they now have about 2,500 Athisylesbury and Pekins waddling freely and supplying about 250 ducks each week to top restaurants including Brae, Lume and Royal Mail Hotel. Lauded chefs such as Dan Hunter, Phil Wood, Robin Wickens and Andrew McConnell ordered direct.....also supply two butchers plus a small number in Hong Kong. The ducks are slaughtered at 14 weeks, much later than factory-reared ducks which are processed at six weeks..." 

Pip Coates 2018 

Po: - turn to nature for inspiration.........the 3 Nobel prize winners for chemistry (2018) tapped into the power of evolutionary biology to design molecules with a range of practical uses. When studying proteins, the scientists first attempted "rational design", ie employing logic in the knowledge of how proteins function to try to build new enzymes (proteins that act as catalysts for chemical reactions). On the other hand, 

"...enzymes are large, complicated molecules - some consisting of thousands of amino acids - and it is hard to figure out how a shift in one twist of the molecule affects how it works..." 

Kenneth Chang 2018 

The scientists used their understanding of the process of evolution to breed molecules like you breed animals. This is called "directed evolution" research, ie inserted the gene that produced the enzyme required for study into fast reproducing bacteria; with the mutations of the gene, they examined how well variations of the enzyme worked; then chose the one that worked best; repeated the process (just as evolution chooses the survival of the fittest over succeeding generations).  By the third generation, they were able to produce an enzyme more than 200 times as effective as the one started with. 

This led to DNA shuffling, ie cut apart different versions of a gene and mix pieces into a new variant, ie, the molecular equivalent of genetic mixing of offspring of two animals. This work has led to stain-removing enzymes in detergents, promising advances in the production of bio-fuels and medical treatments. 

Po: - it is who you know rather than what you know.................a relatively unknown, successful Japanese businessman (Tsuyoshi Matsushita) used his networks to convince superstars to endorse his products. He convinced Cristiano Ronaldo (5 times FIFI soccer player of the year) 
to endorse his SIXPAD (abdominal muscle-training device) and Madonna (Queen of the Pop) to endorse a range of his skin-care products, etc.. Initially he was advised that it would be impossible to get these superstars to sponsor his products but he used his networks to make contact and get their support.

Ronaldo's TV advertisements for SIXPAD have become well known in Japan, and MTG has sold more than 1 million units of the device in the past three years, with the company's revenue more than doubling after the product was launched..." 

Kurumi Mori et al, 2018

Po: - military as the foundation of 18 years of age, young Israelis undertake several years of National Service. During this time they have to make hard decisions and emerge mature beyond their years. Most of the workers in the Israeli's high tech sector learn their tech and business skills while atserving in the Israeli Defence Forces. 

"... In other words, the training that the IDF gives its soldiers to prepare them for the battlefield. Also prepares them for business..." 

Frank Lowry 2018 

Po: rapid urbanisation without shantytowns.........................China has had to handle the greatest igration in human history, ie between 2000 and 2015 alone more than 270 m. people have moved from the Chinese countryside to urban areas. Despite the rapid urbanisation, China has avoided the slums and shanty towns that plague other developing countries. It is estimated that by 2030 China will have an urban population of 1 b. (from around 730 m. in 2013). 

"...after having been a rural society and economy for millennia, China is on track to achieve in just 50 years the level urbanisation that the USA took a full century..." 

Dinny McMahon 2018 

The urbanisation of China started with the mass migration in the 1990s. Before that it was not encouraged, ie in 1987 on the eve of the economic reform, around 20% of Chinese lived in urban areas; by 2001 around 40% of the Chinese were living in cities; by 2013 around half the population was living in urban areas. 

The key to China's success has been the scale and speed at which it built infrastructure, like new roads, ports, power plants, cities, etc. S ome examples 

- cities like Shanghai in 20 years have absorbed 10 m. people; during this time it has built the world's longest subway system which is almost 60% bigger than New York's; 

- in 2012 China was opening 3 new power stations a week 

- people, freight, coal, etc had to compete for space on the country's railways. Usually people were given low priority. More recently China has spent billions of dollars building a high-speed railway network for people from scratch. Today this is celebrated as one of the great achievements of China's transportation system. 

"...Urbanisation - the construction of new housing and infrastructure - has been the driving force behind the Chinese economy for close to 2 decades. It has created demand the massive volumes of steel, cement, and glass; for the ships that bring iron ore from overseas; the power plans and coalmines needed by steel mills; and for the machinery that is needed in construction sites..." 

Dinny McMahon 2018

Linked with urbanisation and industrialisation was agricultural modernisation, ie

"...the former creates jobs that pulls migrants into the cities, and the latter creates migrants by pushing people off farms that no longer need them..." 

Dinny McMahon 2018

On the other hand, urbanisation can support growth and not necessarily drive it (World Bank). 

This addiction to non-stop infrastructure growth has led to some epic scales of waste, eg vacant new cities like Tieling in Liaoning . Also, there are plans for new cities and new districts which will be sufficient to house around 3.3 b. people, ie more than double China's total population. However, the migration from rural areas started to slow in the mid-2010s. 

Po: poo is a zoo........the traditional approach was that organisms in the bowel were contaminants that needed to be cleaned out. Recent research is indicating otherwise, ie the colon is 

" longer......seen simply as a conduit for waste with few other functions. It has become the site of the gut biome, a major engine to health. ..."

Jill Margo, 2018 

"...Unlike genetics, the microbiome is something we can change and manipulate. We need to understand gut bacteria and how imbalances occur..." 

Professor Emad El-Omar as quoted by Jill Margo, 2018 

Research is showing that there is a gut-brain access; with the biome being another organ, ie 

" is as heavy as the brain and as metabolically active as the liver. It is the interface between our genetics and our environment - the link we have long been looking for..." 

Professor Emad El-Omar as quoted by Jill Margo, 2018 

"...poo is a perfect proxy for the state of colon where a large, busy community of microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, resides. These tiny tenants of the bowel are constantly interacting with each other and with their host. Together with their genes and their byproducts, they form what is commonly called the gut biome. Each person's biome is as unique as their fingerprints. It's also powerful because it contains more microbes than a person has cells in their body......Trillions of tiny organisms live in the warm, moist nutrient-rich environment of the human colon. This is a busy community with bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microbes intermingling, reducing the byproducts and interacting with their host......some say the gut biome is the new frontier in medicine and most agree it can exert significant influence on human health. One way it does this is to cross into the bloodstream. Microscopic organisms or their byproducts traverse the colon wall and once launched into the bloodstream can travel anywhere to do good or cause harm......little microbe communities exist in every nook and cranny of the human body......the one in the colon is probably the biggest and is thought to exert the greatest influence on our health..." 

Jill Margo, 2018 

It is expected that biome will be used for diagnosis, treatment and prevention, ie 

"...An analysis of a poo sample will not only be able to estimate a person's risk of disease, from diabetes to depression, but will be able to help them to restore the health of their biome and minimise those risks..." 

Jill Margo, 2018 

Some examples 

using faecal capsules and transplants can cause some patients to take on the physical and mental traits of their donors, such as body shape and health issues, including mental health issues like depression, anxiety, etc 

studies of bacteria in a person's gut using blood, urine, stool and saliva sample and using artificial intelligence to recommend what foods will reduce the chance of diseases like Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, etc 

handling a range of health issues like chronic fatigue syndrome, ulcerative colitis, melanoma, colon cancer, diabetes, etc 

gut bacteria drives the formation of thin-walled blood vessels in the brain that cause strokes and seizures 

Some challenges include 

unable to culture most of the gut's microbes

- to ensure that pathogens like HIV, hepatitis, salmonella, etc are excluded

- storage of biome

- matching the microbial profiles of donors and recipients, ie personalising treatment

- identifying products from microbes that can be absorbed across the gut, enter the bloodstream and can potentially influence the body's chemistry and immune systems

Not all the above examples were generated by using the Po technique 

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