Hygiene & Motivators

. Hygiene or organisational fitness - this refers to basic needs at work. They are not motivators but failure to address them causes dissatisfaction; they are :

i) salary and benefits (include basic income, fringe benefits, bonuses, holidays, etc);

ii) working conditions (include working hours, workplace layout, facilities and equipment);

iii) company policy (formal and informal rules and regulations that govern staff);

iv) status (this is determined by rank, authority, relationship to others, level of acceptance, etc);

v) job security (the degree of confidence that staff have regarding continued employment in the organisation);

vi) supervision and autonomy (involves the extent of control that an individual has over the content and execution of the job);

vii) office life (the level and type of interpersonal relations within the individuals' working environment);

viii) personal life (balance between family, friends and interests vs. time spent at work, personal well-being including health and fitness, etc).

. Motivators - what drives people to achieve, are built around growth and self-actualisation and are more important than hygiene factors in a transition process

i) achievement (reaching or exceeding task objectives satisfies the "onwards and upwards" urge. It is a very powerful motivator and a great source of satisfaction. Greed can be a component of this);

ii) recognition (acknowledgment by senior staff enhances self-esteem and can be viewed as a reward in itself; includes financial and non-financial elements);

iii) job interest (a job that provides satisfying pleasure provides more motivation than an un-interesting job. Ideally, responsibilities should be matched to individuals' interests. Furthermore, this is linked with work ethic that includes attitude and aptitude to work and the organisation, plus cultural fit with organisation);

iv) responsibility (the opportunity to exercise authority and power requires leadership skills, ethics (own and organisational), risk-taking, decision-making, self-motivating and self-directing - these are linked with self-esteem);

v) advancement (the important perception is that promotion, progress and rising rewards for achievement are possibilities);

In other words, how much a person achieves depends upon recognition. Furthermore, the ability to achieve depends upon having an enjoyable job and responsibility. The greater that responsibility, the more the individual can experience the satisfaction of advancement.

Some of interesting ways to motivate staff used at Atlassian (Australian-founded ITC firm that floated on the US stockmarket for around US$ 5 b. in late 2015) (Fiona Smith, 2014):
- 20% time (staff can spend up to a fifth of their week working on their own projects)
- ShipIt day (every 3 months, staff are allowed to work on whatever they want for 24 hours and present their ideas)
- Daily Pulse (staff are checked daily so that health problems are identified quickly)
- Leaders unplugged (senior management hold open mic sessions with staff)
- Simple performance management (based on regular, informal conversations rather than number ratings)
- 1% foundation time (staff are allowed to work for a charity of their choice)
- Restart vacation (new staff are paid to take a holiday before they start)
- HackHouse (new staff spend a week at the beach completing challenges, getting to know the organisation and having fun)
- Democracy (drafts of the firm's financial year plan and strategy are published on the intranet for comments)
- Office perks (drinks fridge, boutique beer on tap, pick'n'mix lolly station, table tennis, pool table, video games and board games)

. Signs of poor motivation:

- poor systems

- excessive workload

- high levels of absenteeism

- quick turnover of staff

- poor behaviour

- under-performance

- lack of enthusiasm.

- "don't-care-less" attitude

- blame culture, ie "it is not my fault"

- culture of learned helplessness, ie always rely on superior for instructions

(sources: Robert Heller et al, 1998; Frederick Herzberg, 1998; Xerox Business Centre, 2004)

What Motivates People

"...motivations are both rational and irrational. The rational, or conscious, motivations have to do with our hopes of gaining money, status, power for entry into a meaningful enterprise......more influential much of the time are our irrational motivators - those that lie outside the realm of our awareness and beyond an ability to control them..."

Michael Maccoby, 2005

What motivates people for growth and productivity (REAL)? (Colin Deoki, 2015)
R = respect, recognition, reward, reinvent, rejuvenate, relationships, etc
E = empathy, encouragement, empowerment, engagement, entrepreneurial, etc
A = approval, acceptance, acknowledgement, etc
L = love, legacy, loyalty, listening, etc
NB These are more effective than fear which involves manipulation & intimidation

. Motivation v. movement

- movement in context is a function of fear of punishment or failure to get intrinsic rewards

- motivation is based on a pyramid of needs with the ultimate rewards for motivation being personal growth and long-term development


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