vii) Gender Differences Start Early

. It has been claimed that these gender differences start early, ie

"...gender differences start as young as two years old; in general terms...... girls are more interested in entertainment that is relationship-orientated and boys are more action orientated......A study of pre-school children showed that during confrontations between two children of the same sex, boys were more than twice as likely to use heavy-handed persuasion, defined as physical force or threats, than more peaceful forms of conducting a dispute. In almost all cases, girls are more likely to try to talk their way out of confrontation rather than use physical force.....a child is not just a pre-programmed bundle of genes. Upbringing and socialisation have a great deal to do with behaviour..."

Robert Winston, 2002

Parenting (mostly based on US data)

The way your staff were parented can have a major impact, ie if a male came from a single mother household and lacked a father figure, he is likely to be more difficult to handle. Generally females are better able to handle lacking a father figure.

There are some important gender differences, ie
"...Men are much more gendered in their behaviour, and in their expectation of the behaviour of their children, than women are......Fathers tend to be more involved and engaged with sons than with daughters and this distinction only gets more marked over time..."

Michael Lamb as quoted by Emily Bobrow, 2016

"...Mothers usually lavish the same amount of time on their sons and daughters, at least when they are younger, whereas fathers tended to devote more to sons from the start..."
Shelley Lundberg as quoted by Emily Bobrow, 2016

"...married fathers with a child between 6 and 12 years old spend nearly 40 more minutes per day with sons than daughters, mostly doing things like playing sport and watching television..."
Emily Bobrow, 2016

Paternity leave - fathers are more likely to take paternity leave for a son than a daughter.

Despite traditional parenting roles being challenged
"...fathers like to see themselves as the fun dad who takes the kids places.....Mothers often get stuck with the lion's share of routine childcare - all the cleaning and feeding and whatnot - whereas fathers tend to swoop in the more recreational experiences..."
Sean Grover as quoted by Emily Bobrow, 2016

"...research shows that family structure - the presence of fathers especially - makes a far bigger difference to the lives of boys than girls......boys who lack a father figure at home were more likely to engage in delinquent behaviour. This effect was largely constant regardless of income or mother's behaviour, and often persisted into adulthood. For daughters, however, the presence of a father did not make much of a difference. As the number of single-parent households rise, resilience of girls may help to explain the widening academic gender gap across much of the industrialised world...... a recent study...... found that boys born to poorly educated, unmarried mothers in neighbourhoods with bad schools were much more likely to have cognitive and behavioural problems than girls raised under the same conditions. Not only did the boys perform worse academically, but also they are more likely to drop out..."
Emily Bobrow, 2016

"...for adolescent boys who are just beginning to feel their power, both physically and socially, it is helpful to have somebody who could challenge them effectively..."
Gretta Keene as quoted by Emily Bobrow, 2016

Furthermore, it is claimed by evolutionary psychologists

"...males have to compete, and competition involves aggression, action and pointless dangerous activities. And there is another, more practical reason for a non-violent mentality to become an all common female trait. Given the need to suckle their infants......women would have spent more time with their children; they took the role of primary care giver. We can speculate that women who were more emphatic, caring and less prone to violence and aggression would make a better job of child-rearing..."

Robert Winston, 2002

. It has been demonstrated that women use constant chatting as a means of bonding, ie

"...Women don't need a reason to talk and don't need an end goal. They talk to make a connection with others..."

Alan Pease et al, 2002


"...when interrupted, men tended to stop speaking, while women, in all-women or mixed meetings, tend to overlap in an energetic way punctuated with lots of laughter......They were quiet when the agenda moved to matters outside their expertise, while men spoke even when they knew little about the topic. One man admitted he spoke up even when he had nothing to contribute because he was ambitious and wanted to impress..."

Lyndall Crisp, 2005

. In meeting context it is claimed that men tend to compete for a turn to speak while women tended to talk over each other, but were more collaborative


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