Indicators of volatile times include

Economic - stock markets, exchange rate, commodity prices (oil, copper & iron ore, etc), interest rates, government debt, etc

- stock markets (Aust. index - peaked over 5,000; fell to around 3,000 and is now oscillating above 5,000+)

- exchange rate (re $A v. $US ? peaked at over parity; fell to mid 60s and now around parity)

- oil prices (fell from $US 150 per barrel to under $32 in 2009 and now is around $100)

- copper prices (fell from over $US 4 to 1.25 per lb & surged to $US 4.65 in early 2011)

- iron ore ($US 80 to 180 per tonne & fell to below 100)

- interest rates (Australian Reserve Bank's cash rate fell from 7.25 to 3%)

- government debt (surpluses to deficits)

- firm failures - in 2011, a record number of Australian firms failed (10,481)

Others, eg simultaneous bushfires and floods in Australia, levels of urban water storage, earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones, hurricanes, volcanic ash, etc


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