xxxxxxiii) Complicated To Complex

Not understanding that organisations have gone from complicated to complex (Daniel Kahneman et al, 2011). This means that there are

- many diverse, interdependent parts interacting and they are in constant flux so that the final outcome is unknown; the same starting conditions may yield different results;

- seemingly simple actions may produce unintended consequences

- rare events are becoming more significant than average ones

. Not understanding how to handle uncertainty/ambiguity. The following types of people are needed (Fiona Smith, 2011e)

- mystery seekers (attracted to unknown areas & problems with no obvious solutions)

- risk tolerators (make decisions despite incomplete/insufficient/ambiguous information; tolerate risk of failure)

- future scanners (question deeply; see links others miss; look out for any signals about future)

- tenacious challengers (resolutely pursue difficult & challenging issues & problems; at home with conflict)

- exciters (create excitement & energy in others)

- flexible adjusters (willing to change & make adjustments)

- simplifiers (understand & communicate the essence of issues)

- focusers (able to focus on pivotal elements)

. Not appreciating de Jager's 4 laws of change (Peter de Jager, 2010)

i) law of inertia (people will stay where they are, unless they have a reason to change)

ii) law of status quo (the more people have invested in the past, the more difficult it is for them to change)

iii) law of resistance (when you try to change people, they will actively resist)

iv) law of speed (change does not happen instantaneously, ie the bigger the change, the longer it takes; change is a process, not an event)

. Not understanding that change is difficult and people need support, ie set up a support structure to help people develop the courage to leave the old status quo.

. Not accepting that questioning and dissent are important parts of the change process and they need to be well managed


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