vii) Wishful Thinking


Po: - riverside polluting factories were downstream of themselves....outlet pipes upstream of inlet pipes so that the factory is the first to get a sample of its pollution and is keen to clean the pollution up

Po: - cars should limit their own parking...........................leave car headlights on when parking so that the longer the car is parked the more likely the car's battery will become "flat".

Po: - make public secret information.........a journalist infiltrated the Ku Klux Klan and made its secrets into a children's game. This trivialised the Klan and its secrets, and the Klan has never recovered its former glory

Po: - if nature creates no waste, we should do the same....a team at Xerox pioneered design innovations that resulted in a product with only around 200 parts, compared with its predecessor having 2,000. Furthermore, the product could be disassembled easily as clips and screws held it together; around 92% of the parts could be re-manufactured and 96% recycled

Po: - give away free samples of products.....instead of signing with distributors and spending money on advertising, id Software (computer gaming) gave part of its product (Wolfenstien) to gamers for free on floppy disc, called shareware. If consumers liked it enough, they could purchase the rest. When id launched Doom in 1994, they gave away around 15 million free demo copies, but since then Doom has generated more than $100 million

Po: - stamps never change...........the Post Office in the UK does not put prices on stamps. The stamps just carry an indication of grade, ie first-class, etc. So when a stamp is purchased the prevailing price is paid for the grade of stamp purchased

Po: - prostitutes have good bedside manners.................prostitutes are being taken off the streets and re-trained as care workers for elderly people in Germany as nursing homes are grossly understaffed. Prostitutes make good carers as they have good people skills, are not easily disgusted and have no fear of physical contact.

Po: - create inland seas..................................................seawater handles deforestation and climate by transforming barren deserts into arable land. A canal is dug inland from the ocean, fills with water, attracting fish and molluscs whose biological waste makes the seawater nutrient-rich. The water fills the earth's aquifers and replenishes wetlands, which in turn attracts wildlife. This has been successfully done along the coast of Sonoran (Mexico) and sandy areas of Eritrea

Po: - combining low fares and outstanding service.............Southwest Airlines started in the 1970s as a no-frills airline and has been one of the most successful players in the industry. It has continually increased its profits while competitors have been bankrupted and/or require government assistance to remain in business. From the first day, the airline concentrated on developing the firm's culture - a way of doing things that would sustain its founding values as the years went by, ie

- staff are No. 1 - the way you treat your staff is the way they will treat your customers

- think small to grow big

- save in good times for the bad times

- irreverence is OK

- have fun at work

- take the competition seriously, but not yourself

- think of the company as a service organisation that happens to be in the airline industry

- do whatever it takes

- always practise what you preach

Southwest has understood that employee satisfaction and customer service are linked.

"...they have maintained their culture of customer service by employing people who are right for the business, and by giving them the tools and incentives to do their work well..."

Richard Branson, 2008

Po: - anyone can become the President of USA..................traditionally potential candidates for the U.S. presidency are extremely wealthy and/or have wealthy backers, such as industry/lobby groups, to fund their campaigns to win party (Democratic or Republican) nomination. Barack Obama's campaign (2008) activated young e-communicators who effectively used blogs and social networking sites to generate excitement, encourage people to vote, increase political awareness and raise money (including many "small" contributions from "Moms and Dads" and "poor". They raised around $US 200 million in on-line donations and encouraged many of his supporters to become active campaigners. This use of the Internet formed the basis of his campaign "to come from behind" and win the Democratic nomination from Hillary Clinton (who was the Democratic "machine's" preferred candidate as a high profile, US Senator and wife of a former President). Then he went on to become the first non-white President of USA (2008) and to be re-elected for a second term (2012). Again the use of social media was pivotal. As social media is not expected to change votes, Obama's team focused on encouraging Democrats to vote (in USA, voting is voluntary). They used software (VoteBuilder) to locate and contact likely Democrat voters and then endeavour to persuade them to vote for Obama.

Some statistics comparing Obama's use of social media between the 2 campaigns (2012 v. 2008), ie

- Facebook fans (34 million v. 15+million). This means that he can reach most Americans as on average each person has 100 Facebook contacts;

- Twitter followers (23 million v. 16+million);

- Online money raised ($US 690 million v $US 190 million).

His Republican competitor (Mitt Romney) for the second term was from the more traditional "presidential" background, ie white, male from a wealthy, privileged background who had strong links with the interest groups in the corporate, industry, commerce, religious, etc worlds. By contrast, Obama's background would not traditionally have been considered advantageous in seeking the USA Presidency, ie

- non-white

- having a non-American father, ie Kenyan

- a Moslem grandfather

- a Moslem second name (Hussein)

- early schooling in Indonesia (including attending a Moslem school)

- a step-sister (half Indonesian)

- brother-in-law and niece of Chinese descent

- after divorcing his Kenyan father, his mother raised him as a single parent until she remarried an Indonesian (Moslem) who became his step-father

- cared for by white grandparents when attending high school and university in Hawaii

- his career background is from the community/volunteer arena, not the corporate or military or political establishment.

Po: - civil dis-obedience is more powerful than guns..................Mohandas Gandhi successfully used the concepts of "non-violent, non co-operation, civil resistance/dis-obedience, peaceful protest" (Satyagraha), including "hunger strike" as a last resort, in the struggle to gain independence (Swaraj or Swarajya) from the British "Raj" by the mid 20th century (1947). In the early 20th century, the British Empire was at its military peak when Gandhi started to galvanise a dedicated core of followers who were representatives of the different ethical/racial groups (Hindus, Muslims, Untouchables, Brahmins, Sikhs, Parsis, Christians, Anglo-Indians, Jews, etc) of the 350 million Indians. Under Gandhi's leadership, they successfully used civil dis-obedience to force the British to quit India, ie

"...The spindle in Gandhi's hand became sharper than the sword; the simple white sheet wrapping Gandhi's thin body was an armour-plate which guns from the fleets of the masters of the seas could not pierce; and the goat of Gandhi became stronger than the British Lion..."

Mikhail Noema (Arab poet) as quoted by Rajmohan Gandhi, 2008

His approach laid the foundations for the development of similar concepts like "freedom without violence", "reconciliation after violence", "empowering the weak or disadvantaged", variations of "people power", etc.

Some examples are

- Martin Luther King, Jr with the civil rights movement in 1960s (USA);

- Dalai Lama handling the Chinese communists (Tibet);

- Nelson Mandela ending apartheid in the early 1990s (South Africa);

- Aung San Suu Kyi handling the military junta (Burma);

- Benigno Aquino toppling the Marcos regime in 1980s (Philippines);

- Ibrahim Rugova's struggle with Yugoslavia (Kosovo);

- Eastern Europe bloc countries ending Russian communist domination in late 1980s;

- starting in 2011, the "Arab Spring" challenging and/or removing Moslem dictatorships (Tunisia, Yemen, Egypt, Libya, Bahrain, Syria, etc);

- earth's environment movement, e.g. Greenpeace, starting in the late 20th century, etc

Po: - the finger is mightier than the pen..............................................................with touch screens in computers, tablets, mobile phones, etc the pen and stylus are being replaced by the finger. Unlike pens, fingers don't run out of ink, they are free and one is always available. It is used to take notes on mobile phones/smart phones, highlighting on Kindles, drawing pictures on an iPad, etc. You don't have to worry about losing work recorded (as you might if written on a piece of paper) as digital notes are stored. In many ways it is the return of the finger as it was the first writing instrument which was then followed by chalk, charcoal, quills, pencils, pens, printing press, stylus, biros, fingers (used on  type-writers,  keyboards & touch screens in computers, tablets, mobile phones, etc)

Po: - blinded auditioning of musicians..................traditionally few women were successful in gaining employment in orchestras, especially in areas that were regarded as male domains, like brass instruments. The selection process was dominated by males, ie conductors, music directors and maestros. They held views that resulted in systemic prejudice against women, because they regarded women as not being as strong as men, their lips were different, their lungs were less powerful, their hands were smaller, etc. Blind auditioning involves erecting screens between the musician and judges so that the judges cannot see the musician and the musicians use numbers, not names, for their identification. Thus the judges' decisions are based solely on what they hear and are not influenced by what they see. Since the introduction of blind auditioning, the number of women in top US orchestras has increased fivefold. If during the audition that musician makes any kind of gender-identifiable noise like coughing, sneezing, wearing heels, etc, they are issued with a new number and have another audition. Blind auditioning is a more effective way of handling gender discrimination than the traditional approach of affirmative action programs, etc.

Po: - everybody has right of way.............................traditionally, planners carefully design town centers. Most times this ends up in gridlock as planners have tried to impose order on the various requirements of the vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians, etc. Planners try to balance the needs of freedom of movement, efficient throughput and safety but end up creating complicated systems that please no one. Recently, in The Netherlands, the city planners have taken away traffic lights, pedestrian barriers, the road markings, cycle lines, etc and created a shared space for all users. In other words, self-organizing has taken over from direct bureaucratic control. The result is a continuing good safety record and faster speed of movement. This concept was introduced in more than 100 towns

Po: - employ no staff.......................................traditionally, organisations employ full-time staff. Some consultancy organisations do not employ full-time consultants but have a pool of carefully selected freelance consultants who are available to work on assignments. When clients approach these organisations about particular requirements, they are able to select the most suitable consultants for the project. This means that a consultant organisation is not restricted in its selection of consultants to its own staff; the client gets the most suitable consultants to work on the project and reduces the administrative procedures and costs within the consultancy organisation. Sometimes this is called a virtual organisation.

Po: - staff decided the late 2003, IBM via the Internet (concept of a 72 hour on-line "value jam") allowed all its staff to have input into developing its values which are

- dedication to every client's success

- innovation that matters (for the company and for the world)

- trust

- personal responsibility in all relationships.

This resulted in staff having ownership and "emotional buy-in" of the values as they were instrumental in choosing them

Po: - everything is free..................this has led to the concept of "freeconomics", ie giving away something free as a proxy to make money some other way, eg Google provides information free but charges for advertising via Ad words (the system is a logging mechanism that counts clicks, add up micro sums that are deducted from clients' accounts each month).

Po: - pornography is innovative..........................the pornography industry has driven the development of micro-payment models and technologies by innovatively developing workable ways to make payment on-line. This industry accounts for 40% of the global download traffic. Some of the innovative payment methods include secure online credits-card payment gateways; third-party payment gateway solutions; affiliate model of Web marketing with different sites promoting others, offering payments for traffic; setting up premium dial-up Internet gateway phone lines to pay for content on a per-view basis; payments via mobile phone accounts.

Po: - connecting one customer to another.................connecting one customer to another is what PayPal (system of payment), Amazon (book seller), etc did. In contrast, the preferred decision-masking approach to marketing of traditional players, like Amex, Barnes & Noble, etc, was top-down and centralized and they could not see the advantage of growing by connecting one customer to another.

Po: - we sell intellectual capital, not time.................... traditionally the professional business model (such as legal, consultant, marketing, accountants, advertising, etc) is based on billable hours, ie charging for time spent and tracking inputs (which has led to photocopying and faxing becoming profit centers!!!!!!!) This was reinforced by the entrenched partnership approach and resultant time-related compensation concepts. This has resulted in chasing "cents rather than dollars" and has at least 6 drawbacks. It measures effort, not outputs and results; its misaligns interests and encourages unnecessarily prolonging tasks; requires constant addition of staff to increase profitability; it burns out people and destroys innovation; it encourages possessive client ownership by individual professionals; it creates friction with clients who want value for money, ie focus on outputs, rather than pay for inputs. Recently some professional firms have become upfront about fees by communicating value and setting fixed prices. This has discouraged the concept of client ownership and focuses on collective performance and collective rewards, rather than individual financial performance; it aligns the reward system with the wants of needs of clients and staff. This increases the focus on effectiveness (doing the right things), reduces the focus on efficiency (doing things right) and increases creativity as clients pay on performance.

Po: - every customer is a is a T-shirt silk screening company that was founded in 2001 and by 2005 had sold around $US 6 million worth of T-shirts. Normally a T-shirt-printing company would focus on printing shirts fast and cheap and/or use aggressive advertising with licenses, retail deals, etc. Threadless only sells on their web site; they do not advertise. They print designs created by the customers; all designs are available for purchase. They regularly hold design contests. Generally nascent designers promote the designs to their friends and encourage them to buy. It is like pyramid selling.

Po: - homemakers become on-line web site (Etsy) was started so that people are able to buy and sell all things home-made. For a small fee anyone can be part of a virtual craft fair 24/7 that overcomes the obstacles of geography and circumstances. Members are encouraged to post their profiles alongside their wares so that it has the camaraderie of the real-world craft fair. In 2009 gross sales reached $US 180 million; with monthly on-line visits exceeding 670 million and over 250,000 stall holders (NB McDonald's has 31,000 stores world wide). Furthermore, it is turning into a social network site.

Po: - clothes that she likes in magazines could pop off the page and into her wardrobe.......................this resulted in changing the way female shop for clothes by selling designer fashion over the Internet. Traditionally, people wanted to handle and try on clothes first. Natalie Massenet developed "Net-a-Porter" which offered a vast selection of designer pieces, available 24/7 and delivered to your door-step. It now has 3 million users in 171 countries, 1,000 staff and annual sales of $ 500+ million.

Po: - giving homeless a home......................................homeless people are very expensive to keep on the streets, especially when the cost of catering for problems of substance abuse, illnesses, crimes, treatments, etc is factored in. They use up many resources like the emergency services (police, ambulances, etc), medical resources (hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical drugs, etc), others (courts, prisons, social workers, etc), etc. Experience in the USA has demonstrated that providing the homeless with an apartment, and with professional back-up, costs around 1/3 of what it costs to "keep them on the streets". Furthermore, many homeless placed in apartments have changed their life-styles and become income-earning, tax-paying citizens.

Po: - intentional pollution.............this involves intentionally dumping chemicals in the atmosphere to reverse the damage done by dumping chemicals in the atmosphere by factories. A group of creative thinkers developed the idea of a "garden-hose-to-the-sky" (stratosphere shield for climate stabilisation). It is like a controlled volcanic eruption whose cooling effects are known. For example, after the volcanic eruption of Pinatubo (Philippines, 1991) that pushed sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere, there was in a decrease in ozone, more diffuse sunlight and a sustained drop in global temperature. Based on this, the idea is to get 34 gallons per minute of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere via burning sulphur into sulphur oxide and then liquefying it. The hose would be 18 miles long and like a firehose in diameter. The hose would be suspended from a series of high strength, helium-filled balloons fastened to the hose at 100 to 300 m intervals, like a string of pearls. The liquefied sulphur dioxide would be pushed skyward by small pumps positioned every hundred metres. At the end of the hose, a cluster of nozzles would spray out a fine mist of colourless liquid sulphur dioxide. The strong winds in the stratosphere would spread liquid sulphur dioxide around the earth in about 10 days. This has been called Budyko's blanket and would cost around $US 250 million and could effectively reverse global warming. A variation of this is "chimney in the sky". This involves attaching long, skinny hot air balloons to an existing power plant smokestack, thus creating a channel that lets hot sulphur gas, by its own buoyancy, into the stratosphere

Po: - use the ocean to produce it own clouds (soggy mirrors).........................the formation of clouds need 3 essential ingredients, ie ascending air, water vapour and cloud condensation nuclei (solid particles). The oceans lack these nuclei and allow more sunlight to reach the earth surface, ie they are less reflective. Furthermore, the oceans, owing to their dark colour, are good at absorbing the sun's heat. It has been estimated that by increasing the reflectivity by around 10 percent of oceanic clouds, the earth would cool enough to counter even a doubling of current greenhouse gas levels. Fortunately, salt-rich spray from seawater provides excellent nuclei for cloud formation. This spray needs to rise several metres above the ocean's surface so that it will lift itself upwards to the altitude where clouds form. One way to do this is the use of a fleet of wind-powered fibreglass boats with under-water turbines that produce a steady stream of spray.

Po: - selling an emotional experience.....................successful, up-market, jeans-selling brand "J Brand" aims to make you feel and look beautiful, feel sexy, confident, ie they are compliments that you will remember. The product provides instant fashion that looks amazing, fits perfectly, is of superior quality yet affordable.

Po: - all managers are betel-nut some countries like PNG, Solomon Islands, etc, betel nut chewing is common practice as a social activity and a stimulant, like coffee/tea drinking in other countries. Unfortunately betel nut chewing has some negative impacts, ie artificially colouring teeth and gums; the red fluid that is spat out stains footpaths, etc; and there is an increased the risk of mouth cancer. A possible solution is to modify the nut, via plant breeding, so that is colourless, able to be swallowed and has none of the cancerous problems, while maintaining its stimulant characteristics

Po: - a trial marriage.....................with high rates of separation and divorce from marriages, a trial period of living together before making the commitments to marriage may help reduce separations/divorces later on, ie people will have time to evaluate their compatibility and suitability for marriage before making commitments. In some way this is already happening with potential partners living together before making any firm commitment

Po: - rascals as a theme park.....................there are gangs of criminals (mostly youth) called "rascals" who cause "law and order" problems in the capital of PNG, Port Moresby. Law enforcement authorities have had little impact on their criminal activities. A way to attract tourists to Port Moresby would be to organise the rascals as performers in theme parks which highlight their illegal activities. This may reduce the "law and order" problems, give lawful employment to the rascals and attract the tourist dollar

Po: - one-offs rather than one-size-fits-all..........we are shifting from mass standardisation to mass customisation. For example, 3-D printers can print a range of materials, such as plastics, resins, foods (chocolate, pasta, breakfast cereals, burgers, etc) and ceramics. It is called additive manufacturing. These printers are now being used to make items that are customised to consumers' individual needs, like

- dresses (using fine sheets of powdered nylon that underwent selective laser sintering (SLS) and were built layer upon layer into a 3-D form. A dress was printed in 12 pieces that were fully articulated and movable; each piece was dyed, crystalled and assembled into the dress)

- Nike has used 3-D printing to manufacture lightweight football studs

- London designer (Ron Arad) has used the process to create monolithic glasses for eyewear brand PQ

- architects are using this technology in model-making by printing components of the buildings or even whole buildings. A system called "contour crafting" uses a movable gantry to lay concrete

- there is a possibility this may be used to develop artificial human tissue to repair damaged nerves or muscles, and maybe to make artificial organs.

"...Computational design and new robotic construction techniques are opening up the possibility for new forms and a renewed interest in ornamentation."

Anna McCooe, 2013

This technology will take high design to the mainstream, ie selling blueprints instead of products direct to consumer. Thus huge savings in the supply chain are possible as transport and storage costs are eliminated, as are the margins previously added by "middlemen". This would make design, and thus products, more affordable.

Po: - a communication system that could survive a nuclear attack...........resulted in the development of the internet

Po: - everyone, anywhere, can visit an art museum.................................. as most people who interested in art are unable to visit art museums, digital technology is providing an alternative. Two museums have turned to digital technology and engagement to increase their audience; they are the Metropolitan Museum of Art (The Met) and the Brooklyn Museum - both ambitious, cosmopolitan New York art institutions - and are using it in different ways that had different impacts, ie

i) The Met uses digital technology to take people into the studios of local artists and/or reach millions via Weibo (a micro blogging platform) and Instagram (provides glimpses of the collection). The Met has published a "Timeline of Art History" that attracts 1/3 of all its web traffic and has a digital gallery called "One Met. Many Worlds". It has had 6 m. physical visitors and 29 m. visitors to its website Weibo; 92 m. have visited its Facebook page. This has involved a cultural change considering the traditional museum's dilemma in the digital age, ie making the museum more accessible without watering down credibility. The Internet

" a thing that annihilates place, making it possible to be here, there and everywhere..."

Anand Giridharadas, 2014

ii) The Brooklyn Museum's digital efforts revolve around games like Freeze Tag!, Tag! You're It, On Click!, Split Second, etc. It has used games like Freeze Tag! and Tag! You're It to engage people while simultaneously making the online collection more easily searchable by future users. But 50%+ of its players were museum professionals; with most coming from its own staff!!!!! On Click! users were evaluating photographs with people from 40 countries playing the game, but 64% were from New York, New Jersey and Connecticut - these locals did 74% of the evaluation! Split Second has people voting on paintings. The lack of engagement by outsiders, eg non museum professionals has shocked the museum and made it rethink its digital strategy.

Po: - mundane data generates way to stimulate public and business innovation is to encourage governments to release raw public data they collect online - crime statistics, health, public transport schedules, weather, etc - in useful formats. Making this data available on the web (in a non-proprietary format), and training people to make use of the data, will increase innovation, generate new businesses, etc. The UN commission recently estimated that "open data innovation" could deliver around an annual US$ 50 billion boost to the European economies. Some examples

i) Brightscope (a US financial information firm) allows 60 million Americans with more than $US 4 trillion invested in retirement plans to compare plans easily. US pension plan data is reported annually by the US Labour Department. This free public website ranks more than 45,000 retirement plans on factors such as returns, contributions, fees, charges, etc as part of its analytics service

ii) the value of personal data

- the accelerometers in smart phones can track how many steps you have walked or climbed

- apps can calculate calories, fat and other nutritional content

- wrist band sensors can monitor heartbeat and temperature

"...Nobody else has more interest in my health than me. Nobody else also has the opportunity to take that health and fitness data and merge it with other data like which drugs I'm taking and my DNA..."

Sir Tim Berners-Lee as quoted by Rachel Botman, 2013

On the other hand, this integration of personal data being shared across websites, apps and other devices is threatened by the

- siloed systems used by Apple

- the walled social networks used by Facebook

- governments wanting to control and reduce the independence of the Internet

Po: - accountants to save the planet..................................traditionally financial accounting focused on internalities and tangibles, etc like financial assets and liabilities, etc, that produced goods & services. On the other hand, a large amount of a firm's value are not reflected by these financial accounting methods. For example, in the mid-1990s was the first time the share market value of a new knowledge-based company, Microsoft, exceed GE's (a successful, traditional "bricks and mortar" firm producing goods and services). Since then many more knowledge-based companies like Facebook, Google, Twitter, Apple, etc have stock market valuations in tens of billions of dollars but accountants are struggling to measure their real worth in traditional accounting terms, ie book values, as opposed to their stock market values. Much of the value is hidden in non-financial, intangible assets, like human and intellectual capital.

Also, the failure of our indicators, like gross domestic product (GDP), to consider non-economic issues, like wellness, nature, etc has allowed us to pollute, burn, extract and chop down resources, with little regard for consequences to the sustainability of the environment, community, etc.

It estimated that current corporate accounts now convey only 20 to 30% of a firm's value, whereas 40 years ago they could capture up to 90% (Jane Gleeson-White, 2014).

Many businesses are struggling to address the enormous social and environmental problems of the world, but feel bound to pursue short-term profit as a legal obligation to act in the interests of their shareholders.

Thus the current report concepts/values/criteria, etc need to expand beyond finance, manufacturing, etc to include

- intellectual value/capital (patents, intellectual property, data, information, knowledge, skills, expertise, training, etc),

- social value/capital (community impacts, social relationships, human balance sheet, human behaviour elements such as ethics, governance, safety, terrorism, etc)

- nature value/capital (sustainability, environmental factors such as waste, air pollution, impacts on soil, animals, vegetation, etc).

Putting a price on these items has a persuasive impact in nature's favour. This is linked with important capital allocation decisions involving basic infrastructure as transport, power, water, communications, etc that are long-term projects and are seen as high risk. On the other hand, are investors willing to accept lower returns for the sake of society and the planet?

The impacts of the GFC (2008) and the information/digitalisation/internet age, etc, have highlighted the need for a broader approach. One way to handle this is a concept called "integrated reporting", ie describing changes in the capital and value creation process over time as an ongoing consideration rather than focusing predominantly on recent financial transactions. It is

"...a conceptual structure to enable businesses to broaden their thinking about value and their business models; in other words, to facilitate the holistic thinking about their organisation's relationship with an impact on the economy, society and nature.......It is about promoting a new sort of corporate report..."

Jane Gleeson-White, 2014

There are around 1,000 companies in the world experimenting with integrated reporting; in 2011, already almost all of the world's 250 biggest firms were publishing sustainability formation (Jane Gleeson-White, 2014)

Alternatives to integrated reporting are

- a ratings agency like Standard & Poors

- auditing based on "benefit" to all stakeholders (workers, community, planet, etc), not just shareholders.

(NB by mid-2014, 26 US states had passed "benefit" corporation legislation; 1,000+ corporations in 34 countries and in 60 different industries have been classified as "B" corporations, ie they pass the benefit test: a corporation cannot maximise profit, while ignoring all the negative consequences of its behaviour.

Po: - clients come to me..................................traditionally consultants go to their clients and work with them. With the advent of social media (Internet, VOIP, Apps, mobile phones, etc), clients can come to consultants for advice and material via an app

Po: - unlimited advertising.................................traditional media advertising has limited time, ie finite. For example in a newspaper it is published on a particular day, allocated a specific time on radio and/or TV. While on YouTube it is allocated to a particular video rather than any time slot, ie the ad can be viewed whenever the video is played. The airtime is effectively unlimited with 300 hours of new content being uploaded every minute; YouTube has a daily worldwide viewing of 1 b. people.

Po: - your phone as a wallet...........................................................the smart phone is allowing people to pay for consumables, etc by their phone rather than credit cards or cash. This is being further refined by using other identification techniques to the traditional PIN or password. These other identification techniques (biometrics) include voice print, iris or eye blood vessel pattern, facial recognition, measurement of a person's gait, heart rhythms, etc.

Po: - be an icon and innovate.........................................................traditionally firms stay with successful products too long, ie fail to re-invent themselves and/or products until it is too late. Also, customers want to wear the icon brand or to try something new. It is an "either or" situation. Levi has changed this from an "either or" to an "and" situation by combining the two, ie launching a tapered version of its iconic jeans (501) call 501CT and to position Levi's as a lifestyle brand. As only 5 to 8% of anyone's money that is spent on clothes is made up of denim products, there is a potential to increase this spend on other Levi products like belt, underwear, jacket, white T-shirt, leather goods, etc

Po: - green is the new black or slow the fashion and design world there is an increasing consciousness on eco-friendliness, ie concern about our legacy for future generations. Celebrities are promoting and financing green causes such as wildlife and habitat preservation, healthy oceans, water access, climate change, etc. For example Leonardo DiCaprio has formed his foundation to save the planet; Brad Pitt has built an eco-friendly theme park for his family; George Clooney has launched Oil Change to reduce America's dependence on oil and drives an eco-friendly car; Justin Timberlake has won an award for an eco-friendly golf course in Tennessee. While Francois-Henri Pinault (CEO of Kering, a conglomerate that owns Gucci, Stella McCartney, Alexander McQueen and Saint Laurent Paris) has a focus on new and appealing solutions to a more sustainable world and is reducing Kerimg's environmental footprint by finding sustainable solutions for sourcing its raw materials and to ensure that an ethical approach is embedded across the organisation. His organisation is pioneering environmental profit and loss statements that highlight group's environmental impact; it also has an in-house centre dedicated to research and development of sustainable and innovative textiles. All this has led to the concept of slow fashions, ie fashion collections don't necessarily adhere to standard seasons, like spring, summer, autumn, winter, etc but are more interested in sustainability which is embedded in the consciousness of innovation and linked with ethics. Thus the focus is on switching to "tran-seasonality" where fashions survive for more than a season.

Po: - newspapers for everyone................traditionally the Washington Post has focused on being the leading newspaper in the USA capital, Washington. Since Tony Bezos of Amazon fame, purchased the newspaper in August 2013, he has applied the same principles that worked for Amazon to the Washington Post. He is asking his staff to think big about what a digital newspaper will look like in future decades that will keep millions of readers interested, ie produce things that customers love? How can journalism survive on the Web? Like with Amazon, he aims to penetrate the lives of millions of Americans and once this occurs, expects profits will follow. The same rationale turned Amazon into the world's largest Internet retailer, revolutionised consumption and the way we read books, eg Kindle. One impact has been on the Washington Post website user numbers. The Post is the largest newspaper in the US capital and launched its first website in June 1996. In May 2004, management tried unsuccessfully to convince their then publisher (Don Graham) to adopt a more aggressive Internet strategy. But Graham was more interested in maintaining the newspaper's leading position in Washington as it had been an important money maker for many decades, rather than using the Internet to expand its readership beyond Washington. On the other hand, Tony Bezos has actively encouraged his staff at the Post to continue developing the website so that the Post could become a truly national and international media player, ie the preferred destination of American newspaper readers. As a result, the Post's website has increased to 42 m. users by September 2014. Bezos has liberated the Post in both monetary and psychological terms. In 2014, the Post began running a "Partner Program" in an attempt to gain millions of new readers outside Washington. Under this program, subscribers to hundreds of US regional newspapers can gain full, free access to the Post website and all its apps; not even the partner newspapers are paying the Post. Also, millions of subscribers to the Netflix online video service and LinkedIn Korea network can receive free digital subscription to the Post; people using Amazon's Kindles have the Post's app installed automatically - initially free. Bezo wants the Post to become a Silicon Valley laboratory or technology hub for the newspaper world using interactive graphics, fast data analysis, etc.; they want to be able to provide the journalists with data on how their stories are performing. There is less pressure on immediate profitability and an increasing focus on growth for long-term profitability. Everything possible is now being measured and calculated, eg
- Which articles on the website are read the most or liked on Facebook?
- Which terms are people searching for on Google at the moment?
- Which articles on the website should become bigger or smaller, based on this search data
Social networks are continually scanned for feedback on what readers want and/or are interested in, eg during the writing process, journalists are automatically being informed on how many people are currently discussing the topic they are writing on; which stories are most popular amongst different demographics like gender, age groups, etc. As a result journalists can't just follow topics of their own interest, they have to be aware of what the readers are engaged by.

Po: share your trading information with many ways the traditional wealth management industry is too complex and intimidating for the typical investor to handle plus it caters for the wealthy, ie to open an account at Goldman Sachs, you need US $10 million. It has been alleged that the existing financial system is just conditioning people to be afraid of making their own financial decisions and to rely on others; it encourages apathy in its clients. As a result, most people use intermediaries to control their money like wealth management funds, stockbrokers, financial planners, bankers, etc. Also, the traditional players have the mindset that technology cannot compete with their professionalism. In 2007, 2 brothers (Ronen & Yoni Assia) created a social trading platform called eToro; it aimed to open the global markets for everyone. It is based on the belief that people should be more connected with their money, have better accessibility to, and knowledge of, the markets and should invest in what they believe in. The platform is similar to other social networks: people can follow, interact and copy each other. But instead of sharing photos, etc, people share detailed financial information about trades. This allows inexperienced traders to learn from more experienced investors in real time. Initial reaction from the finance industry was that people will not share their financial trading activities over the Internet. This has proved to be incorrect as people have been willing to share their trading portfolios with others on the platform. One needs only US $1,000 to open an account with eToro.  The platform has 4.5 m traders from 170+ countries; billions of dollars have been traded (2015). At the same time (2008 - 2014), most wealth management firms have struggled to attract new client assets.

Po: - banks pay you to take money and you pay money to deposit it with the bank.......................................normally when borrowing money from the bank you pay interest on the funds you borrow and if you deposit money with a bank, it pays you interest on your deposit. Since the GFC, banks have used negative interest rates, ie turned the traditional banking financial relationship upside down with depositors paying banks to take deposits and lenders being paid to take loans.
These loans now account for 1/4 of Europe's government debt. In 2014, Germany, Austria, Finland & Spain all sold short-term debt at sub-zero yields. In January 2015, the Swiss National Bank lowered its interest rate on deposits to - 0.75%.  One consequence of this is that bonds are no longer trading like bonds, they are now trading like commodities; with investors speculating on the price.

Po: - integrate schools and business to expose students to real world problems......................many high school students are not adequately prepared for university and/or the job market, especially for professional level careers. In the USA, schools are teaming up with companies such as those specialising in technology, advanced manufacturing, telecommunications, health care, environment and finance sectors to deliver Pathways in Technology Early College High School (P-TECH). US President Obama supported the concept (2013). The program embeds practical workplace skills into the regular curriculum subjects, such as maths, english and social studies. For example, students might learn statistical skills if they were working with a real estate developer. It aims to teach more than technical skills like computer programming, included is training in the soft/tough skills like teamwork, oral communications, writing presentations, project management, collaboration, problem-solving, enquiry, etc.

"...students progress at their own learning rate and of the end 6 year program, which starts in 9th grade they can graduate with not only a certificate for completing the 4 years of high school (under the US system) but also a two year college degree..."

John Kehoe et al, 2015

Already there are around 70 corporations linked with the program (2015) and they include IBM, Bombardier, Cisco Systems, Fujitsu, GE, Lockheed Martin, Microsoft, Motorola and many others. These organisations can help mould the skills of prospective employees. On the other hand, a lot of the graduates are employed by organisations who are not involved in the program

Staff from these partner organisations are in the schools and help design the curriculum. It is like private-public partnerships. However, there is some criticism that the corporate world and education should be kept separate as they have different agendas.

In a variation of this, some universities are linking with high schools

Po: - just-in-time, bite-sized learning......................................there is a need for regular short courses to fulfil the needs of people as their careers progress, ie generate extra skills that make them more employable. This applies the principles of logistics to determine what you need to learn and when. With technological change increasing the obsolescence of knowledge and changing job roles, there is a growing need for learning what we want, when we need it. This has been called digital badging, ie
" a short course in a particular area and earn a badge. Earn several badges and string together a CV which will impress an employer..."
Tim Dodd, 2014
This is thought to be most appropriate for the knowledge-based society, especially industries like IT, finance, etc when knowledge changes rapidly and shorter courses would be more relevant to their jobs
"...these bite-size chunks of learning are at the heart of a revolution in skills accreditation which is coming, and not from government or education regulators, but from education providers and entrepreneurs who are driving one of the biggest disrupters ever to meet education - online learning..."
Daniel Musson as quoted by Tim Dodd, 2014
This is regarded as a way for on-line courses (MOOC) to go mainstream.
Also with increasing numbers of students studying online, there is a massive amount of data generated around how people learn, what works and what does not, etc. This can lead to "adaptive learning" in which the learning program instantly adjusts what is offered to the level of understanding, interest, etc the students show.
NB Education is one of the last areas where the product rather than the customer is a major focus. This is reinforced with employers complaining about the lack of work readiness of today's university graduates.

Po: - cradle to cradle.....................................this needs to be linked with a viable business model, eg the concept of material life cycles, ie a source can be grown or mined, manufactured, used, discarded, then recycled into something altogether new (green technologies). While small-scale recycling of domestic waste started in the 1970s, the large-scale recycling of building construction materials is relatively new. Sometimes it is called upcycling, ie recycling that adds value. An example of agricultural waste (bio waste) being used in buildings is the use stalks from hydroponic tomato plants. These tomato stalks and similar products, like seaweed, are bound in composite building panels with the help of a vegetal compound, ie mushroom myselium (a fungus consisting of millions of hyphae) - when mixed in a mulch it becomes a natural, self assembling glue. The digestive crop waste produces rigid materials; it is mixed and pumped into a mould and left in the dark, consuming no energy. After 5 days it is a solid material that is used to replace poly-styrene

Po: - your competitor becomes a 2009 Microsoft dominated the software industry and was under investigation by the US Federal authorities owing to its alleged mis-use of its monopoly position in the industry. At the same time Apple had less than 5% of this market and was going bankrupt. Steve Jobs (one of the founders of Apple who was fired by Apple) was invited back to try to resurrect Apple's fortunes. Jobs needed an injection of funds to immediately reinvigorate Apple's innovation and prevent it from going broke. Previously Apple and Microsoft had a long-standing dispute around issues like whether Microsoft's Windows Operating System infringes on any of Apple's patents, etc.. It is claimed that Job convinced Bill Gates to invest US$ 150m into Apple on the basis that Microsoft needed to keep Apple as a competitor to help handle the anti-trust charges against Microsoft, ie it was better to have a competitor than none.

Po: no need for big marketing budgets and departments.................................traditional approach to marketing is changing owing to the power of social media. Traditionally large amounts of money, people's expertise and time, etc would be spent on marketing. With social media you are able to get the right product with the right promotion to any market you choose very cheaply and quickly

Po:- respect defaulting customers.................................the traditional approach to customers defaulting on their loans is to take a legalistic approach via correspondence demanding payment within a certain period or taking legal action to recover the money owing. Some of the language used around compliance regulations was not customer friendly. One Australian bank (NAB) realised that most customers prefer to do the right thing when in financial hardship.  Thus it linked up with a mental health organisation (Lifeline) to train its staff to spot and manage customers in financial hardship. This involved a complete rethink about how to communicate sensitive language with their customers; the underlying approach is to show respect to the customer. This approach has helped 100,000+ NAB customers who were in financial distress; this has resulted in a 20% decline in loan defaults and A$7.2 m. in cost savings because of early intervention (Patrick Durkin, 2015c)

Po:- males push gender equality.................................there was limited progress on gender equality in organisations despite the laws, rules regulations, policies, etc.. So Elisabeth Brodrick, when she was Australia's Sex Discrimination Commissioner, developed a program entitled Male Champions of Change. Starting in early 2010 with 6 chief executives and chairmen from large Australian-based companies, it has grown to 150 (mid July 2015). The idea is to get powerful men to talk to other powerful men about their experiences and how to change the status quo plus enforce stringent reporting requirements on performance around gender equity.
" is about men stepping up beside women, not speaking for them, not saving them......and accepting responsibility and accountability the gender equality..."
Elizabeth Brodrick  as quoted by Clare Stewart 2015
In 2014, when some companies, led by the male champions had poor performance on gender equality, additional pressure was applied to improve performance and get away from any criticism that is was just back-patting and public posturing

Po:- top performing school creates a real estate bonanza.................................the location of top ranked, non-selective government schools correlates directly with property prices and the rental market. For example, in Melbourne (Australia), Balwyn High School has a reputation for excellent academic performance of its students. As a result, parents are keen for their children to attend this school but they need to live in a specific geographical area for their children to be eligible to attend this school. It is estimated that the "Balwyn High Effect" has a 10 to 15% loading on housing prices in the school's catchment area. Linked with this are parental engagement in the school and school leadership, ie the school inculcates a culture of excellence, eg "it is cool to do well". Students from 50+ nationalities attend Balwyn High. A similar story for real estate in the catchment area around Brisbane State High in Queensland, Australia

Po:- ride a bike to save yourself and the riding reduces obesity and saves fossil fuels. Riding a bike burns body fat where driving a car burns fossil fuel!!! Encouraging bicycle use would help reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emission, and improve public health and safety.  This is supported by research, eg in New Zealand has shown that if 5% of the total kilometres travelled by car was done by bicycle instead, the benefits would be
"...- save 22 m. litres of fuel
     - reduced transport-related greenhouse gas emissions by 0.4%
     - avoid 116 deaths due to healtheir lifestyles with more physical activity
     - avoid 6 deaths from improved local air quality (due to decreased vehicle emissions)
     - avoid 5 cyclist fatalities in road crashes
     - financial savings in New Zealand of $200 m. per year..."

Graeme Lindsay as quoted by Stefan Hajkowicz, 2015
Other benefits include
- savings on building costs as bikeways are cheaper to build than roads
- considerably less space occupied by parking bicycles compared with cars
- around 70% of all trips made by cars are less than 7 km in distance (NB electric bikes are a possible alternative for longer journeys).
On the other hand, there is a higher fatality rate for bicycles, eg in the USA, 0.55 per 10 m. miles while for cars it is 0.01. In more bicycle-friendly countries like the Netherlands the fatalities are around 6 times less than in the USA.  However, around 90% of all bicycle-related fatalities come from accidents involving cars, vans and trucks.

Po:- turn waste into wealth.....................................all materials are valuable product just awaiting conversion from their current form to another, such as plastic cups, discarded computer screens, old car bodies, mobile phones, etc. Recycling can convert the vast amount of waste into wealth; recycling of used materials could help reduce the scarcity of some minerals like gold, copper, etc. It could allow substituting energy (renewable) for minerals. Perhaps it could reduce the risk of countries going to war against each other over ownership of resources.

Po:- no retirement....................................with the ageing population resulting in people living longer with insufficient savings for a comfortable retirement, there is a need for people to remain in the workforce longer and become less dependent on the younger workforce to generate enough wealth to pay for retirees. An alternative is to keep older people working longer by designing career paths to allow people to gradually scale back and change their duties as they become older (including flexible working arrangements), eg old tradesmen become coaches for younger tradesmen, aged professionals tutor and train the next generation, etc. Thus employment of older people will help themselves financially and the economy. It also have benefits to their mental and physical health and quality of life, eg experiences plus helping and interacting with others.

Po:- no business is like show is about entertainment in the digital world. Most of the fashion leaders are celebrities like Ford/Marco Bizzarri, Yves Saint Laurent, John Galliano, Giorgio Armani, Calvin Klein, etc. Most people who attend fashion shows are journalists, bloggers and celebrities. Most fashion shows are for entertainment and are consumer-focussed hoping to reach social media, editorials and the relationships they have with retailers. Nearly all designers are on Instagram with most people's first experiencing a collection on their computer/smart phone. The lead time from fashion show to availability for the consumer is getting shorter.
"...there is no science to fashion; success relies on triggering that most material of emotion, desire.  You need both business strategy and creative vision..."
Marion Hume, 2016
The luxury end of the fashion business has grown exponentially but there's not enough talent around to handle it.

Po:- diamonds are forever........before World War II the popularity of diamonds was falling. To increase the demand for diamonds, DeBeers (the world's largest diamond producer) and its advertising agency (NW Ayers & Son) conspired to make them desirable again by inventing the engagement ring.

Linked with above Po is

Po:- the business of love will go on forever........."...convincing young couples their engagement should be marked by a diamond ring stands as one of the marketing industry's greatest achievements. Having used Hollywood to register diamonds in the minds of North Americans in the postwar period, diamond producers......unleashed their marketing teams on Japan in the late 1960s, helping to raise the penetration of engagement rings from less than 10% to almost 60% in less than 20 years..."

Peter Ker 2018

· Not all the above examples were generated by utilizing the Po technique

· Remember: the more extreme the Po is, the more powerful it can be in creating new thoughts

· One way to start the process when in groups is to ask each member of the group to come up with his/her thoughts on the Po, ie run around the table

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