i) Arise


Po: - radio beam used to shoot down aeroplanes ...........................development of radar

Po: - plane should fly upside down...................pilots should sit under the plane as it will give them have a better view, especially when landing which is one of the most dangerous activities of flying

Po: - letters should be closed after they are posted.. direct mailers put in advertising and pay postage

Po: - to sleep and not sleep at the same time..a Russian prisoner drew pupils on a piece of paper and stuck the paper on his eye lids with spit; consequently, when the guard came to check if he had fallen to sleep, it appeared that he was awake

Po: - using a TV mini-series (Sigrid Thornton factor) to create a demographic boom...demographic booms occurred in Echuca ? Moama after the TV mini-series "All the Rivers Run" was shown; similarly, for Barwon Heads after "Sea Change". Both series starred Sigrid Thornton. These series popularised life-styles and regions which then attracted visitors and new residents; furthermore, they stimulated the local communities to develop the regions

Po: - come and visit the Red Centre....traditionally tourists did not visit Central Australia during the hot time of the year, ie summer with high temperatures. The NT Tourist Authority started a successful advertising campaign urging a visit to Central Australian during the summer, with the advertising slogan - come and see the "Red Centre"

Po: - a car as a shopping basket/trolley...when the VW beetle was introduced into the American market after the second World War, it did not sell well until it was advertised as the housewife's shopping basket. (NB This was when large "gas guzzlers" vehicles were popular in USA)

Po: - approach the wives of shift workers to reduce labour costs...a power utility was suffering from excess labour costs, ie overtime associated with shift work. Many wives were upset as their partners were never home, especially during the week-ends. Thus, the wives were informed that a change in shift work would mean that their partners would be home most week-ends. The union leadership opposed the changes but the pressure from the wives won the day. The firm changed the shift work schedule and reduced its labour costs by 20%.

Po: - pollution is a commodity............futures trading in pollution so that a firm that had a good pollution record could "trade" or sell its surplus allocation to a firm that was a heavy polluter

Po: - old automobile tyres as footwear....in developing countries old automobile tyres are made into sandals and shoes for people to wear

Po: - use books to sell cars........after writing a book on how to buy a second-hand car, the author ended up with a garage full of books. In an attempt to sell his book, he starting advertising on the Internet and was swamped with the demand. Then he approached car dealerships about purchasing his list of book buyers. As they have large advertising budgets for the general public, they were very keen to have the names of potential car buyers, ie more targeted, captured, interested, cheaper market to service

Po: - clicks not critics............... traditionally, editors and critics evaluate and choose titles for the public to buy from retailers (bookstores and on-line). In fact, Amazon's use of editors and critics was seen as a competitive advantage until Jeff Bezos (founder and CEO of Amazon) asked the question, ie what if the company could recommend specific books to customers based on the individual shopping preferences? As Amazon had already captured realms masses of data on what its customers buy plus books they browsed and didn't buy, etc. Using this data and new software (item-to-item collaborative filtering), they compared the sale results from the data-derived material with the editors and critics. As the data-derived material generated vastly more sales, the group of editors and critics was disbanded. Up to 1/3 of or Amazon sales now come from its recommendation and personalised systems. This system has revolutionised e-commerce, eg Netflix (an online film rental company) has ¾ of its sales from buyers' recommendations. This has changed the concept of sales from knowing why people are buying to what people are buying. The latter is driven by the clicks.

Po: - using cameras to see...............in 1992, Dutch engineer Peter Meijer created vOICe (an algorithm that converts simple greyscale images into musical sound-scapes, ie a system that turns images into sequences of sounds). The system scans images from left to right, converting shapes in the image into sounds as it sweeps; with higher positions in the image corresponding to higher sound frequencies. With 70 hours of training, using vOICe, people, who were blind from birth, went from hearing simple dots to seeing whole images such as faces, street corners, etc. Additionally, they could detect the exact posture of the person represented by the soundscape and replicate the pose. Furthermore, this has challenged the way urologists think the brain is organised. The previously-accepted concept is that the brain contains regions devoted to each sense, and if these regions are not used they can be used for other things. Scientists believed that the body-recognising areas couldn't have fully developed without visual experience during development. On the other hand, it was found that the area of visual cortex responsible for recognising body shapes in people (extrastriate body area) was alight with activity in the blind people. But it appears that the brain is a task machine, not a sensory machine. This has been called functional constancy (areas of the brain do the same job - even with different kinds of inputs)

Po: - no advertising and all stores different...............traditionally retail stores spend large resources on mainstream advertising and promoting sameness in the stores worldwide, like McDonald's, Holiday Inn, etc. "Ted Baker" doesn't advertise and every retail store is different. The London stock exchange-listed firm has celebrated 25 years in retail; share prices almost doubled from 11 British pounds (2013) to over 20 (early 2014). It has 4,000 employees worldwide; with 400 in head office (London). It sells menswear, women's wear, shoes, children's clothes, accessories, perfume bedding, mobile phones, glasses, watches, etc. It aims to be irreverent and amusing; it uses humour in its annual reports and to generate sales: for example, giving customers goldfish to carry around in bags of water, or handing out condoms with motivational messages, etc.

Po: - easier divorce laws don't lead to more divorces...............in the 1970s, the US states that introduced laws allowing either spouse to initiate a divorce had a correlative impact on reducing women's suicide rates, domestic violence and number of women murdered by their husbands rather than a rise in divorce.

Po: - misspelt words as a basis for a free spell-check...............Google has the most complete spellchecker in basically every living language. The system is constantly improving and adding new words based on people using the search engine every day. At no cost, it reuses the misspellings that are typed into the company's search engine among the 3 billion enquiries it receives daily. A clever feedback loop instructs the system which word the users actually should have typed in; with users sometimes informing Google of the answer, ie it poses the question at the top of the results page, ie "did you mean........?"; by clicking on that it starts a new search for the correct term and it is recorded in the system. Thus Google spell-check continually improves itself.

"...Google's spell-checking system shows that "bad"," incorrect", or "defective" data can still be useful..."

Victor Mayer-Schonberger et al 2013

In contrast, Microsoft had a different approach that only saw the spell-check valued for one purpose, ie word processing; thus restricting itself to a new major languages, etc.

Po: - legalising abortions reduces crime.....since the 1990s the fall in the USA crime rate has been statistically linked with abortion being legalised in 1973. As a result of that legislative change, 20 years later the pool of potential criminals was smaller as unwanted children are more likely to become criminals than children who are wanted by their parents!!!!!! Furthermore, unwanted children are more likely to grow up in a single-parent household and poverty. Studies have shown that growing up in a single parent home, especially with a teenage mother who has a low level of education, and living in poverty are very powerful factors leading to criminality. The fall in crime was not due to prosperity or better policing or more imprisonment or shortage of drugs

Po: - legalise pornography......Hugh Hefner created "Playboy" magazine which legalised pornography because it was placed it in the context of an urbane bachelor lifestyle that included music (jazz, etc), fine wine, literature, elegant manners, etc.

Po: - limited choice to reduce prices............Aldi discount supermarket chain has a very limited range of products to sell when compared with its competitors. They carry the most popular grocery items, stocking between 600 to 800 different items compared with the 30,000 on offer at a typically large supermarket. The chain embodies the concept that consumers need only everyday basics as cheaply as possible ("bare-bones" model) and practises hard discounting, ie by selling a small range of goods, mostly under house brands (almost 90% of their stock is sold under house brands), they are able to deal directly with suppliers and drive extremely hard bargains. Choice is severely limited, eg there are just 2 varieties of toilet paper, one kind of toothpaste, etc. Limiting the range in this way means Aldi has an enormous purchasing power, estimated at around 20 times that of world leader Wal-Mart. This is reflected in its prices. Further cost reductions are achieved by having products displayed on shipping pallets straight from the warehouse, or in ripped-open cardboard boxes; there are limited checkouts with customers bagging their own groceries, bare-boned displays, etc

Po: - sell something that was free........Nike took something everyone already had for free, gave it neat-looking packaging, bought celebrity endorsement for it and sold it for a premium. What they sold was air. Nike air cushion system was a triumph of technology and marketing. Assisted by a basketball player named Michael Jordan, Nike grew from car boot sales to by far the largest seller of sports/fashion shoes in the world

Po: - use computer games to increase intelligence....research over 30 years has found an average 3% increase in IQ per decade. This has been explained by exposure to computer games and internet. Interactive media involves making decisions; thinking and evaluating; learning and detecting patterns. It is a wonderful exercise of the mind, ie a cognitive workout that is exercising parts of the mind that give you techniques that can be applied to real world problems, such as multi-tasking, handling virtual relationships, problem-solving in the abstract, juggling and shifting between priorities, etc

Po: - swimming pools to reduce infection....in remote areas of Australia where skin, chest, eye and ear infections are life threatening and in epidemic proportions among Indigenous youth, the use of chlorine in the swimming pool water is significantly reducing (has more than halved) the incidence of these infections in the population; similarly, a reduction in the use of antibiotics and clinical workload has occurred. In addition, the pools have become a social hub for the community.

Po: - aircrews are sales staff..........low-cost air carriers have a minimum ticket charge with an extra charge for ancillary service. This means every movie, food item, etc sold adds to the bottom line. Ryanair generates 13% of its revenue from ancillary items. Thus the aircrews have to be motivated to sell and are therefore partly paid on a commission basis

Po: - selling haircare by promoting nutrition..by appealing to the maternal instinct of women, Proctor and Gamble sell one of its most successful hair-care lines (Pantene) by promoting nutrition, ie women need to feed and nurture their hair

Po: - entertainment (films and TV shows) to bring about positive social change in a community's attitudes and behaviours.....most of us feel that TV and films encourage anti-social attitudes and behaviours. Yet Jay Winsten of Harvard University organised the media to bring about social changes on a large-scale in relation to drink driving and teenage violence. He convinced the producers of around 160 leading television shows and mass-market films makers that they could include redeeming social messages. These messages would not be intrusive and did not impact negatively on the thrust of the entertainment. Furthermore, the major TV networks followed up with public service announcements reinforcing these messages. As a result, rates of death and injuries from drink driving have dropped significantly in the USA and the practice of assigning a designated driver, who does not drink, has become increasingly routine. For teenage violence, he developed a campaign called "Squash it" based on research that showed teenagers privately admitted that it showed strength and self-respect to move away from an altercation rather than resort to fighting. Furthermore, he is also increasing adult mentoring of disadvantaged youth. These campaigns are based upon TV and film programs that involve

"...social marketing uses the disciplined, iterative methods perfected by high-end advertisers to promote socially desirable ends..."

Howard Gardner, 2006

Po: - Trojan horse concept used in medicine..................one of the challenges with new medical drugs is getting them to where they are needed. In particular, the brain, where blood vessel walls are tightly knitted, can create a formidable obstacle to delivering treatments for neurological diseases. Some viruses that specialize in infecting the nervous system, such as rabies and herpes, are able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Some scientists have exploited this capability by disguising a drug with a small protein normally found on the surface of the rabies virus. This protein unlocks a passageway through the blood vessel walls and allows the drug to penetrate the brain.

.....................a similar example involves a biopolymer cage that can protect or conceal a variety of substances until their release is desirable; both the cage material and the trigger to discharge its contents can be tailored to specific situations, such as germ killing plastic wrap for meat by encapsulating a bactericidal enzyme inside woven cages of cross-linked starch molecules, then coating the plastic with them. The starch cages remain inert unless bacteria are present, which then start eating the starch, thus degrading the cage until the killer enzyme is released

Po: - look beyond the individual in health.................................traditionally medicine looks at health as an individual issue, ie what we eat, how much exercise, etc. Two researchers, Wolf and Bruhn, convinced the medical establishment to think about health in terms of community, ie what culture he or she is part of, who are their families and friends, and what towns their families come from.

Po: - China is the "blue collar" centre of the world while India is the "white collar centre" of the region..........................China is dominating the world's manufacturing with products from its factories, while India is fast becoming the region's centre for knowledge creation, ie computer software development, call centres, back office work, etc. In addition to supplying the western world with products and services, both India and China are developing their own internal markets. Imagine the situation if they could join forces!!!!!

Po: - in simplicity lies the ultimate sophistication........this resulted in Apple's (founded in 1976) development of its many successful products like iPhone, iPad, etc. Apple is the world's most valuable publically-listed firm, ie market capitalisation of US$ 660 million (2013)

Po: - rent a room to a stranger..................................Airbnb (started in 2008) is based on people renting out their houses/apartments/units/rooms to strangers, as hotels do. This on-line accommodation portal has helped organise 15+ m. stays in around 200 countries (see Volume 1 for more details, ie traditional models under threat). It is now the second largest hotel chain in the world but doesn't own any hotels and/or have any hotel staff. It started by leasing a spare room to some designers for a conference as a way to help pay for the rent; they pumped up an air mattress!!!!!

Po: - virtual bank.................................Jack Ma (founder of Chinese biggest Internet firm - Alibaba) used Alipay to successfully challenge the financial services monopoly enjoyed by China's state-owned banks. It accounted for more than 60% of China's $US 235 b. mobile payments market (2016). Its competitive advantages were offering better deposit rates and a more convenient payment system. He has created a virtual bank that is responsible for starting the process of deregulating China's financial system. In addition, Jack Ma took on eBay in its prime and squeezed Yahoo! out of its most prospective investment. Alibaba is worth $US 229 b. on the New York stock exchange and accounts for 28% of all e-commerce globally, ie double that of Amazon (2016) (Angus Grigg 2017). Alibaba has extensive interest in media, traditional retail, fund management and disruptive technology, such as ride sharing apps. Jack Ma claims to know very little about technology but is a great deal maker and selector of talent.

Po: - slicing risk to micro premiums.............................................people generally pay their insurance premiums annually. Why not change to premiums for micro-duration policy? This is managing risk in real time or virtual insurance. Thus the policy can cover periods from a second upwards, ie able to track and ensure things to the second. By clicking/swiping the premiums can be paid and the policy activated; similarly, by another click/swipe the policy is deactivated. Also, there is a chat function to facilitate claims. As people are used to clicking, swiping and a chat function, they are having a familiar experience and feel like they are in control

"...If you slice risk into ever decreasing increments and create ways for people to interact with protection, it changes the entire insurance industry world, a world that has been built over 300 years..."

Scott Walchek as quoted by Rachel Botsman 2016

There are 3 key ingredients to establishing micro premiums, ie on demand, single item & micro-duration policies. For example, a single click/swipe on the computer/smart phone starts the policy and another click/swipe ends the policy. Thus the policy could be for an hour, a day, etc. This puts the user in control of protecting the things they own. Also, there is an enormous value in helping people collect information about the things they are in, with minimal fuss

Scott Walchek developed Trov (Apple's design-led approach to managing risk in real-time) and is partnering with Suncorp (an Australian banking, insurance, etc group). The reasons for launching in Australia is the high penetration per capita of mobile devices (in 2016 around 3/4 of the adult population owned a smart phone or tablet) and it has a single regulatory authority. While USA has 54 bodies.

Suncorp's approach is that it is better to disrupt its own business itself and keep its customers

Need outside thinking

"... Not being burdened with archaic practices and rutted pathways of thinking. when you ask...... why things are a certain way or about regulatory practices, it is almost 100% because "we have always done it that way"..."

Scott Walchek as quoted by Rachel Botsman 2016

Po:  -investing ethically, under-performance no...................................................................there is a belief that you cannot invest ethically without compromising your returns, ie a fund's performance tends to fall as it begins to exclude companies. For example, most ethical funds do not invest in the mining industry owing to their exposure to fossil fuels like coal, coal seam gas, etc; other industries that could be excluded are alcohol, tobacco, gambling, weapons, fast food, soft drinks, nuclear energy, etc. Research has shown (Royal Bank of Canada, 2012) that socially responsible investing did not result in lower investment returns

Po: - word of mouth............................................................many high-tech, start-up organisations, like Atlassian, do not have a specialised marketing/sales department but rely on word of mouth for viral growth to a mass customer base. They believe as long as their products are excellent, they will sell effectively

Po: - soft skills first................................................................traditionally we select and educate people who have high IQ and/or shown competency in hard skills like technical expertise. At some stage, they are encouraged to develop their soft skills (people handling, etc). These soft skills are more important than the hard skills as staff move up the organisational ladder. On the other hand, as the soft skills are harder to teach, it would be more effective and easier to select people who have good soft skills and train them in the hard skills.

Po: - carnivals become family friendly......................for decades carnivals in USA were regarded as unsafe places to take your family to visit, eg dominated by freak shows, undesirables, social misfits, adult only entertainment, etc.. Walt Disney, by building Disneyland in Florida and promoting it on his regular, popular TV shows, transformed this image and made his theme parks family-friendly, ie bright, clean and safe. As a result, millions of families, etc regularly visit Disneyland and other theme parks have followed his example.

Po: - be like the Portuguese mariners............................................several centuries ago the Portuguese seafarers understood the world's wind patterns and used this knowledge to become a colonial power. Jose Neves (founder and co-chair of Farfetch) followed a similar approach, ie using a hub of digital engineers and coders in Portugal (second only to India). He linked the

"...idiosyncratic, independent bricks and mortar fashion retailers, opening up to trade with the world..."

Marion Hume, 2017

Farfetch handles the back office logistics for online trade in selling designer clothes and accessories. It links the inventory of boutiques around the world by adding their inventory management systems to Farfetch's central website.

"...This allows Farfetch to know exactly what's in stock in each store at any given time, and to help customers the world over to find what they're after, and ship it to them..."

Marion Hume, 2017

They prepare all the documentation including duties, taxes, customs clearance, etc so that all the boutiques have to do is prepare the inner package and put them in a Farfetch box for shipment to customers.

Farfetch does not hold any inventory which is different from the initial fashion Internet organisations launched in 2000 which was to create a department store with buyers and inventory but no bricks and mortar, eg Net-A-Porter

Farfetch is a user of new technology rather than a disruptor. They are more a leveller, ie bringing a technology and logistical support to the whole fashion industry so that they are able to reach and compete for the global audiences.

Like most of the successful businesses in the world, they provide API-based platforms (Application Programming Interface), ie using software to build a platform through which to gather information, which in turn helps to sell things.

Po: - remain feminine in your use of power................successful career women like Natelie Massent (founder of Net-A-Porter) and Michelle Obama (wife to the first Afro-American USA President) have shown that you can be successful but remain utterly feminine in your use of power

Po: - no leaks...............................................International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ), an offshoot of the Centre of Public Integrity (Washington DC, USA), had to pioneer collaborative journalism by its members across many countries to cover the Offshore Leaks Investigations (2013), LuxLeaks (2014), Swiss Leaks (2015) and Panama Leaks (2016). Traditionally journalists and their media bosses are very competitive and as a result are keen to break any story first. ICIJ had a challenge

"...To convince the 370 plus journalists working on the project over 100 media organisations in 76 countries not to break ranks and to wait until we are all ready to publish our first stories, on the day we all agree..."

Gerard Ryle as quoted by Neil Chenoweth 2016

ICIJ has created a new model for international journalism that is forcing greater government disclosure across the world while reshaping the public's perceptions of how the secret offshore world works. Also by sharing resources ICIJ has been able to dig much deeper than most media organisations could do on their own

Po: - fly like a butterfly and sting like a bee........................................................Muhammed Ali (20th century's most iconic heavyweight boxing champion) had an unconventional boxing strategy and style, ie

- he played mental games with his opponents. He regularly taunted and baited his opponents both before and during the fight, eg Frazier was "too dumb to be champion"; he would whip Liston "like his daddy did" and as he "smells like a bear and I will donate him to a zoo after I beaten him"; that Terrell was an "Uncle Tom" for refusing to call Ali by his name and continually referring to him by his previous name of Cassius Clay; Paterson was a "rabbit", etc)

- he continually danced around the boxing ring with his guard down, eg hands dangling by the side rather than protecting his face and upper body

Once his trainer (Angelo Dundee) convinced him to box more traditionally; he nearly lost that fight!!!!!!

(NB as a child he taught himself to duck and weave by having his brother throw stones at his face from a close distance!!!!!)

Po: - surgery with no blood.......................................................traditionally surgeons used scalpels, etc to operate. An alternative has been developed that focuses sound waves on the damaged/infected area. Compare with traditional surgery, this is less risky, less intrusive, less messy and allows quicker recovery.

Po: - plug into the electricity grid instead of buying your own generators..........................................this concept helped develop "cloud computing" (the practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage and process data rather than a local server or a personal computer). Thus firms like Amazon, Microsoft, etc who had developed massive computer infrastructure could hire out to other firms. Suddenly almost infinite computing and storage power became accessible to anyone on demand and companies only have to pay for what they use. For example, start-ups such as Dropbox, Pinterest, Spotify, etc were able to deal with surges in demand instead of collapsing. Also, there were considerable cost savings as they did not have to buy and run their own expensive computer servers, set them up and hire staff to deal with them

Po: - make 11 year olds the experts.................................................Alan Alda (well-known US actor of TV series like MASH and West Wing) has started a Centre for Communicating Science at Stony Brook University (New York, USA). He has had a lifelong interest in science and feels that there is a communication gap between the public and the scientists. He developed an idea based on his experience as an 11-year-old when he asked his science teacher a question, but the answer he received only confused him more. To encourage more young people to develop and maintain an interest in science, he has developed a competition where 11-year-olds select a topic of scientific interest they want to know more about. Scientists then have to develop a way of communicating the answer to the students. Then the students judge the best answer. Regularly hundred of scientists participate in this contest.

Po: - telling the truth too late.......................................................during the WW11 some double agents (spies) working for the Allied forces needed to maintain their credibility with the Germans. This was done by giving important factual information to the Germans but the information arrived too late to be of any value to the Germans.

Po: - arts supported by business................................................................the world-class Adelaide Festival started in 1960 by the efforts of 2 men (Sir Lloyd Dumas - newspaper proprietor) and (John Bishop - Professor of Music, University of Adelaide). They convinced prominent Adelaide businesses like The Advertiser, Bank of Adelaide, John Martin & Co, Adelaide Steamship Co, Kelvinator, etc of the financial benefits they would receive from the influx of visitors and tourists to Adelaide during the festival. These businesses and the Adelaide City Council were the initial sponsors.

Po: - robots help with learning..................................traditionally robots are seen as freeing humans from repetitive-task drudgery. The study of robots can help understanding of systems, logic, enquiry-based learning and foundational learning strategies, ie learning how to learn.

"...Robotics works because it's such an engaging and innovative medium that allows students not only to learn, but also to become technologically fluent...... is a unique platform for proposing real-world engineering challenges and allowing students to work to solve these problems. If you give students the opportunity to think with robots, to play, to come up with new solutions and inventions, it's just amazing to watch them..."


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