I) Work Separation

. This involves the degree to which tasks in the organisation can be divided into separate jobs. In other words, tasks are broken into a number of steps/jobs, with each being completed by a separate individual, ie individuals specialize in doing part of an activity rather than the entire activity. The advantages of specialization are

- very efficient way of using people skills, especially in highly sophisticated and complex operations

- less time is spent changing tasks

- skills levels are increased through repetition

- training is easier and less costly

- efficiency and productivity are increased by encouraging the creation of innovation.

. Specialization has worked well for McDonalds and for specialists in medicine.

. On the other hand, human dis-economies occurred, such as boredom, fatigue, stress, low productivity, poor quality, increased absenteeism, higher staff turnover, etc

. Alternatives to specialization include enlarging the scope of work, increasing variety of work, working in teams, etc to optimise output and increase employee satisfaction.


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