xi) Movers & Shakers

Need to include in this team those with an ability to be the change they were seeking to create and to be a microcosm of the larger collaborative you are trying to create

. Not understanding where to find the movers and shakers. The organisational chart does not necessarily demonstrate where the power resides, especially the exercise of covert power by people or groups. To identify the individual or groups, you need to be very observant and/or ask some leading questions (Fiona Smith, 2009s), eg

- who goes together to social events outside work (same social club, same sporting activities, same hobbies, etc)?

- who regularly mixes at work (during breaks, etc)?

- who do others at work constantly refer to?

- in a meeting, who does everyone look to for a reaction?

Furthermore, to influence a group you need to understand your own personal power sources. These are the things you can work on to build a good working relationship and can include your access to resources, your networks, or your ability to fix problems, etc.

. Not understanding how leaders embed their beliefs, values and assumptions in an organisation. According to Edgar Schein (2004), they do this by 3 mechanisms, ie primary embedding and secondary articulation, and reinforcement.

"...Primary embedding mechanisms

- what leaders pay attention to, measure, and control on a regular basis

- what leaders react to (for example, critical incidents and organisational crises)

- what leaders allocate resources

- deliberate role-modelling, teaching, and coaching

- how leaders allocate rewards and status

- how leaders recruit, select, promote and excommunicate

Secondary articulation and reinforcement mechanisms

- organisational design and structure

- organisational systems and procedures

- rites and rituals of the organisation

- design of physical space, facades and buildings

- stories about important events and people

- formal statements of organisational philosophy, creeds and charters..."

Edgar Schein, 2004


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