i) Zone Of Comfort

As most people are risk averse, they prefer to stay inside their zones of comfort or

"...the idea is to take the risk, only when you know you can afford it..."

Robert Winston, 2002

. Not being honest with people; there is a need to be honest with people as the process will challenge deeply-held assumptions and values.

. Remember: what is defined as a sense of urgency or crisis is mainly based on perceptions. Whether or not a crisis is seen as dangerous depends upon the culture of the organisation, especially how senior management/leaders react.

. Need to be careful that sense of urgency does not go too far and create FUD (fear, uncertainty and doom)

Hidden defaults (unforeseen influences on our behaviour)

Hidden defaults is an example of zone of comfort
"...Hidden defaults are deeply part of us. They're the customs, traditions, and social codes......The rituals around births, weddings, and deaths......They're the narratives that we live within..."
Yancey Strickler 2019

Indications of hidden defaults are statements like
"...'how things are done' or 'how it is'......what's normal..."
Yancey Strickler 2019

Hidden defaults influence the way we perceive facts and make decisions
"...We think we make decisions based on objective truth, but all of us follow norms and de-faults set by cultural narratives we live within......not only do we perceive hidden defaults is how things are, we see them as how they should be..."
Yancey Strickler 2019

Some examples

- location of shops (in the USA, the right-hand side of the road is the preferred side to be observed when driving, ie people are much more likely to turn right than left. Thus, the 'no left turn rule' in the world of retail planning. As drop-in customers are important in the retail business, one of the biggest factors in attracting droppings is which side of the street you are on, ie
"...be a right turn at the right time of the day......like coffee shops should be on the right-hand side of the morning traffic. Afterwork businesses like grocery stores should be on the right-hand side of the evening traffic......turning right is faster, safer, and, and thanks to optimisation by retail planners, the way traffic overwhelmingly..."
Yancey Strickler 2019)

NB As in USA, they drive on the right-hand side of the road, turning left is more dangerous than right!!!

- organ donation rates (rates vary from country to country and have been linked to whether the default option on the forms is "opt in" or "opt out". Countries where citizens' default is 'opt in' have a higher organ donation rates in those countries that have the default 'opt out'.)

- gym membership (67% of people with gym memberships don't use them and keep paying anyway)

- marketing e-newsletters (only 0.28% of e-mail addresses opt out of marketing newsletters, ie spam)

- US House of Representatives re-election rate (most incumbents get re-elected, irrespective of approval ratings)

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