Change Implementation Techniques for Forming Transitional Team, Creating Alignment, Maximizing Connectedness and Creativity

Technique 6.17 Po

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Introduction

· · Po is an acronym for Provocation Operation which asks "Suppose..?" and "What if..?". It is a Provocation which may be impossible, contradictory, absurd or nonsensical

· · Po involves a deliberate leap out of the logical sequence. It is associated with

- hypothesis (brings new possibilities to perception)

- suppose (let's suppose....)

- possible (the status quo is not the only way a situation has to be)

- poetry (for the movement value of its imagery, provoking new thoughts)

· · Po is placed in front of the provocative, sometimes absurd proposition, which pushes our perceptions out of the dominant track into an as-yet un-associated side-track. Furthermore, Po has no value in itself; its importance is where it leads. Its purpose is movement, so treat these exercises like stepping stones used to cross a river

· · Po is placed in front of the provocative, sometimes absurd proposition, which pushes our perceptions out of the dominant track into an as-yet unassociated side-track. Furthermore, Po has no value in itself; its importance is where it leads. Its purpose is movement, ie treat these exercises like stepping stones used to cross a river

· · The Po technique requires that something is put forward directly as a provocation. When using Po, everyone knows that the provocation is unreasonable and contrary to experience; however, the bolder the provocation, the greater the chance of good and unusual ideas being generated. A provocation is not for judgement but for "movement". We move forward from the provocation to new ideas. There is a demonstrated need for provocation in any self-organising information system like the human brain. It is more than "what if" or "suppose" as this implies a limited range of possibilities. Provocation goes beyond that.

· · There are 2 elements involved in Po, ie the setting up and delivering of ideas

· · Furthermore, there is a need to recognize the difference between creating a provocation and movement, ie extracting an idea from provocation (using imagination), and to resist the urge to do the 2 things at the same time

· · This technique needs plenty of practice; then fluency, skills and confidence will feed off one another

Six Types of Po

i) Arise

iv) Exaggeration

ii) Escape

v) Distortion

iii) Reversal

vi) Wishful Thinking

i) Arise (Crazy Idea)

eg:

Po: - radio beam used to shoot down aeroplanes ...........................development of radar

Po: - plane should fly upside down...................pilots should sit under the plane as it will give them have a better view, especially when landing which is one of the most dangerous activities of flying

Po: - letters should be closed after they are posted.. direct mailers put in advertising and pay postage

Po: - to sleep and not sleep at the same time..a Russian prisoner drew pupils on a piece of paper and stuck the paper on his eye lids with spit; consequently, when the guard came to check if he had fallen to sleep, it appeared that he was awake

Po: - using a TV mini-series (Sigrid Thornton factor) to create a demographic boom...demographic booms occurred in Echuca ? Moama after the TV mini-series "All the Rivers Run" was shown; similarly, for Barwon Heads after "Sea Change". Both series starred Sigrid Thornton. These series popularised life-styles and regions which then attracted visitors and new residents; furthermore, they stimulated the local communities to develop the regions

Po: - come and visit the Red Centre....traditionally tourists did not visit Central Australia during the hot time of the year, ie summer with high temperatures. The NT Tourist Authority started a successful advertising campaign urging a visit to Central Australian during the summer, with the advertising slogan - come and see the "Red Centre"

Po: - a car as a shopping basket/trolley...when the VW beetle was introduced into the American market after the second World War, it did not sell well until it was advertised as the housewife's shopping basket. (NB This was when large "gas guzzlers" vehicles were popular in USA)

Po: - approach the wives of shift workers to reduce labour costs..a power utility was suffering from excess labour costs, ie overtime associated with shift work. Many wives were upset as their partners were never home, especially during the week-ends. Thus, the wives were informed that a change in shift work would mean that their partners would be home most week-ends. The union leadership opposed the changes but the pressure from the wives won the day. The firm changed the shift work schedule and reduced its labour costs by 20%.

Po: - pollution is a commodity............futures trading in pollution so that a firm that had a good pollution record could "trade" or sell its surplus allocation to a firm that was a heavy polluter

Po: - old automobile tyres as footwear....in developing countries old automobile tyres are made into sandals and shoes for people to wear

Po: - use books to sell cars........after writing a book on how to buy a second-hand car, the author ended up with a garage full of books. In an attempt to sell his book, he starting advertising on the Internet and was swamped with the demand. Then he approached car dealerships about purchasing his list of book buyers. As they have large advertising budgets for the general public, they were very keen to have the names of potential car buyers, ie more targeted, captured, interested, cheaper market to service

Po: - clicks not critics............... traditionally, editors and critics evaluate and choose titles for the public to buy from retailers (bookstores and on-line). In fact, Amazon's use of editors and critics was seen as a competitive advantage until Jeff Bezos (founder and CEO of Amazon) asked the question, ie what if the company could recommend specific books to customers based on the individual shopping preferences? As Amazon had already captured realms masses of data on what its customers buy plus books they browsed and didn't buy, etc. Using this data and new software (item-to-item collaborative filtering), they compared the sale results from the data-derived material with the editors and critics. As the data-derived material generated vastly more sales, the group of editors and critics was disbanded. Up to 1/3 of or Amazon sales now come from its recommendation and personalised systems. This system has revolutionised e-commerce, eg Netflix (an online film rental company) has ¾ of its sales from buyers' recommendations. This has changed the concept of sales from knowing why people are buying to what people are buying. The latter is driven by the clicks.

Po: - using cameras to see...............in 1992, Dutch engineer Peter Meijer created vOICe (an algorithm that converts simple greyscale images into musical sound-scapes, ie a system that turns images into sequences of sounds). The system scans images from left to right, converting shapes in the image into sounds as it sweeps; with higher positions in the image corresponding to higher sound frequencies. With 70 hours of training, using vOICe, people, who were blind from birth, went from hearing simple dots to seeing whole images such as faces, street corners, etc. Additionally, they could detect the exact posture of the person represented by the soundscape and replicate the pose. Furthermore, this has challenged the way urologists think the brain is organised. The previously-accepted concept is that the brain contains regions devoted to each sense, and if these regions are not used they can be used for other things. Scientists believed that the body-recognising areas couldn't have fully developed without visual experience during development. On the other hand, it was found that the area of visual cortex responsible for recognising body shapes in people (extrastriate body area) was alight with activity in the blind people. But it appears that the brain is a task machine, not a sensory machine. This has been called functional constancy (areas of the brain do the same job - even with different kinds of inputs)

Po: - no advertising and all stores different...............traditionally retail stores spend large resources on mainstream advertising and promoting sameness in the stores worldwide, like McDonald's, Holiday Inn, etc. "Ted Baker" doesn't advertise and every retail store is different. The London stock exchange-listed firm has celebrated 25 years in retail; share prices almost doubled from 11 British pounds (2013) to over 20 (early 2014). It has 4,000 employees worldwide; with 400 in head office (London). It sells menswear, women's wear, shoes, children's clothes, accessories, perfume bedding, mobile phones, glasses, watches, etc. It aims to be irreverent and amusing; it uses humour in its annual reports and to generate sales: for example, giving customers goldfish to carry around in bags of water, or handing out condoms with motivational messages, etc.

Po: - easier divorce laws don't lead to more divorces...............in the 1970s, the US states that introduced laws allowing either spouse to initiate a divorce had a correlative impact on reducing women's suicide rates, domestic violence and number of women murdered by their husbands rather than a rise in divorce.

Po: - misspelt words as a basis for a free spell-check...............Google has the most complete spellchecker in basically every living language. The system is constantly improving and adding new words based on people using the search engine every day. At no cost, it reuses the misspellings that are typed into the company's search engine among the 3 billion enquiries it receives daily. A clever feedback loop instructs the system which word the users actually should have typed in; with users sometimes informing Google of the answer, ie it poses the question at the top of the results page, ie "did you mean........?"; by clicking on that it starts a new search for the correct term and it is recorded in the system. Thus Google spell-check continually improves itself.

"...Google's spell-checking system shows that "bad"," incorrect", or "defective" data can still be useful..."

Victor Mayer-Schonberger et al 2013

In contrast, Microsoft had a different approach that only saw the spell-check valued for one purpose, ie word processing; thus restricting itself to a new major languages, etc.

Po: - legalising abortions reduces crime.....since the 1990s the fall in the USA crime rate has been statistically linked with abortion being legalised in 1973. As a result of that legislative change, 20 years later the pool of potential criminals was smaller as unwanted children are more likely to become criminals than children who are wanted by their parents!!!!!! Furthermore, unwanted children are more likely to grow up in a single-parent household and poverty. Studies have shown that growing up in a single parent home, especially with a teenage mother who has a low level of education, and living in poverty are very powerful factors leading to criminality. The fall in crime was not due to prosperity or better policing or more imprisonment or shortage of drugs

Po: - legalise pornography......Hugh Hefner created "Playboy" magazine which legalised pornography because it was placed it in the context of an urbane bachelor lifestyle that included music (jazz, etc), fine wine, literature, elegant manners, etc.

Po: - limited choice to reduce prices............Aldi discount supermarket chain has a very limited range of products to sell when compared with its competitors. They carry the most popular grocery items, stocking between 600 to 800 different items compared with the 30,000 on offer at a typically large supermarket. The chain embodies the concept that consumers need only everyday basics as cheaply as possible ("bare-bones" model) and practises hard discounting, ie by selling a small range of goods, mostly under house brands (almost 90% of their stock is sold under house brands), they are able to deal directly with suppliers and drive extremely hard bargains. Choice is severely limited, eg there are just 2 varieties of toilet paper, one kind of toothpaste, etc. Limiting the range in this way means Aldi has an enormous purchasing power, estimated at around 20 times that of world leader Wal-Mart. This is reflected in its prices. Further cost reductions are achieved by having products displayed on shipping pallets straight from the warehouse, or in ripped-open cardboard boxes; there are limited checkouts with customers bagging their own groceries, bare-boned displays, etc

Po: - sell something that was free........Nike took something everyone already had for free, gave it neat-looking packaging, bought celebrity endorsement for it and sold it for a premium. What they sold was air. Nike air cushion system was a triumph of technology and marketing. Assisted by a basketball player named Michael Jordan, Nike grew from car boot sales to by far the largest seller of sports/fashion shoes in the world

Po: - use computer games to increase intelligence....research over 30 years has found an average 3% increase in IQ per decade. This has been explained by exposure to computer games and internet. Interactive media involves making decisions; thinking and evaluating; learning and detecting patterns. It is a wonderful exercise of the mind, ie a cognitive workout that is exercising parts of the mind that give you techniques that can be applied to real world problems, such as multi-tasking, handling virtual relationships, problem-solving in the abstract, juggling and shifting between priorities, etc

Po: - swimming pools to reduce infection....in remote areas of Australia where skin, chest, eye and ear infections are life threatening and in epidemic proportions among Indigenous youth, the use of chlorine in the swimming pool water is significantly reducing (has more than halved) the incidence of these infections in the population; similarly, a reduction in the use of antibiotics and clinical workload has occurred. In addition, the pools have become a social hub for the community.

Po: - aircrews are sales staff..........low-cost air carriers have a minimum ticket charge with an extra charge for ancillary service. This means every movie, food item, etc sold adds to the bottom line. Ryanair generates 13% of its revenue from ancillary items. ThUs the aircrews have to be motivated to sell and are therefore partly paid on a commission basis

Po: - selling haircare by promoting nutrition..by appealing to the maternal instinct of women, Proctor and Gamble sell one of its most successful hair-care lines (Pantene) by promoting nutrition, ie women need to feed and nurture their hair

Po: - entertainment (films and TV shows) to bring about positive social change in a community's attitudes and behaviours.....most of us feel that TV and films encourage anti-social attitudes and behaviours. Yet Jay Winsten of Harvard University organised the media to bring about social changes on a large-scale in relation to drink driving and teenage violence. He convinced the producers of around 160 leading television shows and mass-market films makers that they could include redeeming social messages. These messages would not be intrusive and did not impact negatively on the thrust of the entertainment. Furthermore, the major TV networks followed up with public service announcements reinforcing these messages. As a result, rates of death and injuries from drink driving have dropped significantly in the USA and the practice of assigning a designated driver, who does not drink, has become increasingly routine. For teenage violence, he developed a campaign called "Squash it" based on research that showed teenagers privately admitted that it showed strength and self-respect to move away from an altercation rather than resort to fighting. Furthermore, he is also increasing adult mentoring of disadvantaged youth. These campaigns are based upon TV and film programs that involve

"...social marketing uses the disciplined, iterative methods perfected by high-end advertisers to promote socially desirable ends..."

Howard Gardner, 2006

Po: - Trojan horse concept used in medicine..................one of the challenges with new medical drugs is getting them to where they are needed. In particular, the brain, where blood vessel walls are tightly knitted, can create a formidable obstacle to delivering treatments for neurological diseases. Some viruses that specialize in infecting the nervous system, such as rabies and herpes, are able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Some scientists have exploited this capability by disguising a drug with a small protein normally found on the surface of the rabies virus. This protein unlocks a passageway through the blood vessel walls and allows the drug to penetrate the brain.

.....................a similar example involves a biopolymer cage that can protect or conceal a variety of substances until their release is desirable; both the cage material and the trigger to discharge its contents can be tailored to specific situations, such as germ killing plastic wrap for meat by encapsulating a bactericidal enzyme inside woven cages of cross-linked starch molecules, then coating the plastic with them. The starch cages remain inert unless bacteria are present, which then start eating the starch, thus degrading the cage until the killer enzyme is released

Po: - look beyond the individual in health.................................traditionally medicine looks at health as an individual issue, ie what we eat, how much exercise, etc. Two researchers, Wolf and Bruhn, convinced the medical establishment to think about health in terms of community, ie what culture he or she is part of, who are their families and friends, and what towns their families come from.

Po: - China is the "blue collar" centre of the world while India is the "white collar centre" of the region..........................China is dominating the world's manufacturing with products from its factories, while India is fast becoming the region's centre for knowledge creation, ie computer software development, call centres, back office work, etc. In addition to supplying the western world with products and services, both India and China are developing their own internal markets. Imagine the situation if they could join forces!!!!!

Po: - in simplicity lies the ultimate sophistication........this resulted in Apple's (founded in 1976) development of its many successful products like iPhone, iPad, etc. Apple is the world's most valuable publically-listed firm, ie market capitalisation of US$ 660 million (2013)

Po: - clicks not critics............... traditionally, editors and critics evaluate and choose titles for the public to buy from retailers (bookstores and on-line). In fact, Amazon's use of editors and critics was seen as a competitive advantage until Jeff Bezos (founder and CEO of Amazon) asked the question, ie what if the company could recommend specific books to customers based on the individual shopping preferences? Amazon had captured masses of data on what its customers buy, plus books they browsed and didn't buy, etc. Using this data and software (item-to-item collaborative filtering), they compared the sale results from the data-derived material with the editors and critics. As the data-derived material generated vastly more sales, the group of editors and critics was disbanded. Up to 1/3 of all Amazon sales now come from its recommendation and personalised systems. This system has revolutionised e-commerce, eg Netflix (an online film rental company) has ¾ of its sales from buyers' recommendations. This has changed the concept of sales from knowing why people are buying to what people are buying. The latter is driven by the clicks.

Po: - rent a room to a stranger..................................Airbnb (started in 2008) is based on people renting out their houses/apartments/units/rooms to strangers, as hotels do. This on-line accommodation portal has helped organise 15+ m. stays in around 200 countries (see Volume 1 for more details, ie traditional models under threat). It is now the second largest hotel chain in the world but doesn't own any hotels and/or have any hotel staff. It started by leasing a spare room to some designers for a conference as a way to help pay for the rent; they pumped up an air mattress!!!!!

Po: - robots help with learning..................................traditionally robots are seen as freeing humans from repetitive-task drudgery. The study of robots can help understanding of systems, logic, enquiry-based learning and foundational learning strategies, ie learning how to learn.

"...Robotics works because it's such an engaging and innovative medium that allows students not only to learn, but also to become technologically fluent...... is a unique platform for proposing real-world engineering challenges and allowing students to work to solve these problems. If you give students the opportunity to think with robots, to play, to come up with new solutions and inventions, it's just amazing to watch them..."

ii) Escape (Reverse Things That are Taken for Granted)

eg:

Po: - restaurants do not charge for food............Diners Club card, ie eat now, pay later. Frank McNamara, entrepreneur who started Diners, was "caught short" at a restaurant and had to phone his wife to get her to drive in with the cash as he had left his wallet at home

Po: - refrigeration to warm food.......selling refrigerators to Eskimos to warm-up their food

Po: - we sell products to our competitors...........change usual method of product distribution

Po: - cost comes after revenue...........travellers' cheques (pay money upfront before going on trip or holiday, thus allowing the issuer of the cheques to have use of your money)

.....Starbucks debit cards (within 60 days of its launch, some 2.3 million cards sold and the company had a $US32 million cash float. About $US1 billion has been loaded on to Starbucks cards in the US over the first 3 years)

.....to generate cash flow to start Virgin records, Richard Branson received cash from customers when they ordered; he had negotiated to pay the record companies and advertisers 1 month in arrears.

.....many entrepreneurs, such as Peter Holmes a Court, are using debt on their credit cards to finance their businesses.

.....telephone firms using pre-pay facilities on phones. Younger people and people in the developing world prefer this option.

Po: - take a contrary view of globalising........GE focussed on areas of the world that were either in transition or out of favour with investors, eg Europe and Mexico in the mid-1990s

Po: - forwards need to play like backs.......Australian Wallabies (rugby union team) achieved an 81% success rate with Rod Macqueen as a coach (1997-2001)

Po: - don't pay full price upfront.............use of instalment payments

Po: - no pure cattle breeds....mixed or composite herd (increased reproductive performance by around 25%). Some operators were so proud of their pure breeds and so against the idea of a composite breed that they refused to accept the evidence and left the organisation

Po: - use a criminal to catch a criminal......FBI pardoned a criminal (fraud) on the basis that he use his skills to catch others involved in fraud. The film "Catch Me If You Can" is based on this story

Po: - taxi drivers are nice to each other..initially a taxi driver allowed his competitors to "steal" his work. After 6 months of being laughed at by other taxi drivers, they started to push surplus business his way

Po: - to grow, don't go overseas...Wesfarmers has grown laterally inside Australia by broadening its base into new sectors, from retail to coal mining, rather than going overseas to invest in the same industry

....Amancio Ortega who operates the third largest fashion retailing empire in the world (Inditex), decided that manufacturing everything offshore was too time-consuming, and involved significant hassles with production, quality control and timeframes. Instead the company developed a home-grown system that, although 10 to 15% more expensive because around 2/3 of production done in Europe and only 1/3 done in Asia, has delivered great value to the company

Po: - banks have no branches.........banking done by telephone and Internet with large savings to banks, ie estimates suggest that Internet banking has reduced the cost of handling each transaction from over $US 1.00 to a couple of cents

Po: - airlines do not pay landing rights.......Ryanair (low cost airline) gets the local authorities to pay the landing rights at the local airport as Ryanair brings visitors (thus money) to local areas

Po: - a disease to control a disease........deal with life-threatening cancer in humans by using another disease to control it. Some examples,

i) the use of modified herpes virus to infect and destroy tumour cells in the brain

ii) use of bacterium (Wolbachia) to block the transmission of dengue virus from mosquito to humans. Further research has demonstrated that this bacterium reduces the ability of mosquitoes to transmit other human pathogens that cause malaria, chikungunya and yellow fever.

iii) use of a modified HIV virus to work on the immune system to destroy cancer, such as leukemia

Po: - hunters become conservationists................in Cambodia, the previous hunters of rare animals are now scouts for locating and recording details of these species

                                                              ...............Masai (African tribe) were lion hunters who are now guardians of the lions and track their movements using the latest electronic equipment as part of a conservation programme

Po: - planned obsolescence...............this has encouraged the throw-away customerculture or nondurable goods, ie goods with a limited life span. Some examples include

- Apple's phone batteries are only expected to last 18 months and are hard to replace as an incentive to buy a new phone

- IKEA's furniture is designed for quick assemble and not to last long

Po: - poisons treat diseases...............Thalidomide was used to alleviate morning sickness in pregnant ladies. It had an unfortunate side-effect as their babies were born with birth major defects like limblessness. Now it is used in the treatment of cancer and leprosy

                                            ...............mustard gas was used WW1 as a chemical weapon with devastating impact. As it works on the white blood cells, it has formed the basis for chemotherapy treatment of cancer, ie destroying of living cells

Po: - don't employ skilled people.....employ people on the criteria of work attitude, aptitude and cultural fit with the organisation, with on-the-job training to give them the necessary skills to handle the job. In one firm this has helped reduce absenteeism to near zero while the rest of the industry has up to 50%

Po: - plastic as conductors......development of plastic electronic products (semi-conductors), such as information displays for appliances and computers, electronic paper, radio-frequency identification tags, wearable electronics, chemical sensors and pressure-sensitive skin for robots

Po: - make your enemies into friends.........2 traditional adversaries (conservationists and farmers) became partners in the very successful Landcare movement in Australia

.............................succesful politicians, like Barak Obama, Nelson Mandela, etc appointed rivals into their inner circle; Obama had Hillary Clinton as his Secretary of State, Nelson Mandela appointed the main Zulu opposition chief into his cabinet

......................................................after around a 12 year absence Steve Jobs is invited back to Apple when the organisation is around 2 months away from bankruptcy. At the same time Microsoft is under pressure by the US regulators for its monopolistic position in the software industry and there is a possibility that Microsoft will be "broken up". As he and Bill Gates had disputes around IP, their relationship was not cordial.  Even though Apple had insignificant market share in the computer industry, Jobs was able to convince Bill Gates to invest US$ 150 m. into Apple, on the basis that would help his case with the US officials, ie Microsoft had some competition rather than none. This investment enabled Apple to reinvent itself and become a one of most successful firm in the world

Po: - the products aspirational.........................skin cream (ARgENTUM) has a cult following in an overcrowded market controlled by some big players.  It is a visionary brand that has qualities of uniqueness, delivered with a strong identity. Everything about the product is aspirational, ie made in Paris in small batches to maintain purity and efficacy; the finest colloidal silver is sourced from the USA; raw materials come from Europe & Africa; components are made in Czech Republic and Germany.  Each jar contains one of 12 cards (creator, sage, caregiver, magician, everyman, ruler, jester, innocent, rebel, explorer, hero & lover); each user is invited to draw imagery and symbolism from the card reflect their subconscious, ie
"...I want to address beauty within and beauty for me means balance and harmony...... and that led me to the idea that we need to find balance of archetypes, which are primordial images that reflect the contents of a collective unconscious..."
Joy Isaacs as quoted by Helen Hawkes, 2016a

Po: - waste not, want not..........................................traditionally in Australia "leftover good food" from stalls, markets, shops, meals from restaurants, etc is thrown out as it is illegal to give it away.  It is estimated that around A$8 b. worth of food is thrown away annually in Australia.  Jim and Simone Carson (2005) founded a group called SecondBite that changed the legislation in different states in Australia called the Good Samaritan legislation that now allows food to be given away. With the help of corporate Australia like ANZ, Coles, Pratt Foundation, Fortescue, ISPT, etc plus volunteer groups like Rotary, Sacred Heart Mission, etc, this charity rescues surplus fresh food from farmers, markets, supermarkets, etc for distribution to people in need and/or cannot afford it.  It has more than 800 volunteers working for it (early 2016).  Since its inception (2005) to early 2016 it has distributed 20 m. kg of food of which 75% is fruit and vegetables; provided 40+ m.  meals; backed 1,200 community food programs. Some comments from Coles  "...we were throwing away a lot of good food that could have gone to better use and thought that was the wrong thing to do. By partnering with SecondBite we can give them access to what is still high-quality food and produce meals that people who can't afford it..... The satisfaction that our team members on the ground get is just unbelievable. You get 100,000 team members fully supportive, of their own volition, supporting a local charity supporting local people who are really needy...... we call it win, win, win......we cut down our food waste bill, we give good-quality food to the community to help people in need and our team members feel they are giving something back......for example, 4 times a week Penny in Port Pirie goes and delivers the food in her lunch break because they don't have the resources to pick the food up. She volunteers to do this..."
John Durkan (Managing Director, Coles) as quoted by Patrick Durkin, 2016

                                         ............................................Four Pillars is gin distiller which leave nothing to waste, ie nose-to-tail gin where everything gets used, eg
- the used "botanicals" are used as pig feed that perfumes the meat
- steamed oranges are made into orange marmalade and breakfast spread as they remain sweet, tart & fresh; they do not lose their acid or sugar during distillation and pick out some of the herbal flavours
- as the first couple of litres of unstilled gin are not suitable, it is made into cleaning products, with a beautiful smell
- the leftover aromatic, tannic liquid is sent to beer brewers
Furthermore, the distillers are planning nose-to-tail gin dinners which will include botanically infused pork, a sweet featuring marmalade, cleansing ale or cocktails from their gin. (Paul Best, 2016)

Po: - specialising in one industry globally, not many industries in one country..............................the luxury conglomerate Kering is worth around US$ 21 b.. François -Henri Pinault is the current chairman and chief executive of Kering. His father created a conglomerate of disparate companies from retail to construction under PPR.  Pre-globalisation the best way to diversify was to do different types of business in a local area. However globalisation allowed for more specialisation in one industry and to find diversification through geography. Thus in 2007/08 François-Henri decided to focus the firm's interest and specialise in lifestyle, luxury and sports and changed the company's name to Kering.  Kering became a conglomerate to a group of luxury brands. More recently, Kerings is moving away from a group of luxury brands towards being a luxury group
"...our strategy and business model is based on development of brands we have built over the last 10 years.  These brands are completely complementary and based on a vision of the luxury market at different segmentations of that market.  We think it is not the most efficient approach to try to address all the important segments through one brand, which is an option taken by other groups - I'm not a believer in that. I believe in brands having very strong mission addressing one key segment of the market and being number one in that segment.  This is how we built a portfolio based on criteria of product category, price segmentation and style, and we apply this vision of the market when evaluating our acquisitions. We're not buying for the sake of buying and we don't need to buy to grow.  We need to buy to cover the market, which we did......we now have great potential for organic growth...... I can really change the size of the group I by just focusing on organic growth in each brand......now is the right time to make sure that we have the right team and the right setup and are ready to continue to grow in a sustainable manner......the influence of luxury brands is huge.  It's not just little segments of affluent people.  We are influencing the whole industry of ready-to-wear, and you need time to set the trends...... you need time to infuse those new trends with real creativity...... you need to create a desire, and you also need time to manufacture the product...... the mission statement of our group is we are here to improve the lives of people by giving them a way to express their personality and increase their self-confidence......it's not only about the product; it's all about creativity and values and the sincerity of it......creativity is not a steady flow that comes every season at the same pace, at the same quality.  It can go back and forth as its creative.  People are human, and they may be more creative and less creative.  So, we need to make sure we are bringing the best creativity all the time through our brands, and this is why sometimes it takes time to evolve......our business is really about taking creative risk..."
François-Henri Pinault as quoted by Katarina Kroslakova, 2016

Sustainability as a way to create value and marketing of luxury products is different from other marketing, ie they communicate massively to people who will never buy anything from them.  In doing so they are creating aspirations through people and creating a sense of privilege for the ones who are capable of accessing luxury brands.

Po: money back guarantee on yourself.................a jobseeker was desperate to get a job as the country was in the middle of a recession; with unemployment at 11+%. During an interview which was not going well, the interviewee stated that he would work free for the first 90 days, ie like a moneyback guarantee.  He got the job.

Po: use mobile phones to reduce junk food consumption............................................................an unexpected consequence of the rise of mobile phones is their impact upon convenience foods. In places like Pacific, Africa, etc sales of snack foods and "soft" drinks like Coca Cola has fallen.  The decline in these food purchases correlated with the roll-out of mobile phone networks by telecommunications organisations. Prepaid Sim cards and mobile phones are replacing the purchase of chips and soft drinks, ie
"...in areas where there are constrained budgets, people are choosing communication and technology over food......the desire to connect and communicate was so strong..."
Jason Pellegrino as quoted by Michael Smith 2016

Po: -  a watch on both wrists......................................the prime need for a wrist watch was to know the time of day.  In the connected era, we feel the need to be on top of messages, e-mails, notifications, etc which constitutes a level of stress. A good place to have this information available is on the wrist. So on one wrist you have the traditional timepiece and on the other wrist, a smart watch

organisational development change management

Po: - stricter environmental rules and regulation increases profitability.......the stricter environmental rules and regulations have encouraged innovation and development of more sustainable forms of energy, agriculture, construction, mobility, forestry, etc. The concept of eco-efficiency has already persuaded companies to make radical shifts and innovation. This has resulted in improved financial performance and reputation by easier hiring of the best talent, higher retention of top talent, higher employee productivity, reduced expenses in manufacturing, reduced expenses, increased revenue/marketshare, reduced risk, easier financing, improved company reputation and brand equity

Po: - competitiveness created by high wages and shortage of labour.... traditional competitiveness was created by "cheap and abundant labour" but Germany, Switzerland and Scandinavian countries have succeeded for decades with high wages and shortages of labour. This has increased the incentive for innovation, etc

Po: - competitiveness comes from high interest rates, high government deficits and appreciating exchange rates................many nations have enjoyed rising living standards with budget deficits (Korea, Italy & Japan), appreciating currencies (Germany & Switzerland) and high interest rates (Italy & Korea) over the last 30 years. This is the reverse of what traditional economic practice recommends.

Po: - resource-poor nations out-perform resource-rich nations......from the 1970s to the 1990, the resource-poor nations like Singapore, Japan, Korea, Switzerland & Germany prospered; eg, Singapore achieved a rise in per capita GDP from 1980 to 1995 (15 years) that took resource-rich USA 50 years to accomplish.

Po: - fast food outlets don't need staff........using new technology (computers and Internet) and vending machines to replace staff in fast food outlets, such as "easyInternet" cafes in shared premises with the likes of McDonalds

Po: - the poor to help themselves......micro-enterprise development (micro-credit to assist rural entrepreneurs to start various self-employed businesses). It inverted one of the basic tenets of mainstream banking, by lending small amounts of money to fund activities conducted by poor women with no assets or collateral, ie the poorer are you are, the more attractive you are. In traditional banking, the richer you are, the more attractive you are to a bank. It embodies the marriage of self-interest with altruism, harnessing business know-how to social ends. Starting in Moslem-dominated, rural Bangladesh in 1970s, the Grameen Bank (whose founder, Muhammad Yunus, won the 2006 Nobel Peace prize for it) began lending small amounts of money to the landless poor. The concept was very successful, with over 90% repaying their loans. Most clients were women who formed groups of around 25 to receive small business loans and mentoring. They guaranteed each other's loan. Many international organisations are now following this model to help alleviate poverty as simply giving people hand-outs does not result in sustainable poverty alleviation; entrepreneurialism, rather than charity, is the solution. For example, this concept has been replicated in the Pacific, ie Somoa (2009), Tonga (2009), Fiji (2010), Solomon Islands (2012) by MicroDreams and South Pacific Business Development (SPBD).

This is now a $9 billion industry in micro-lending which is based on the belief that people do not need the threat of seized assets as an incentive to pay back loans.

Furthermore, to handle the lack of access to other resources, such as technology and information, Grameen has established a cellular village telephone service in urban and rural areas. As a result, the businesses are performing better as they have improved communications (including access to information relevant to their business).

Yunus has now started a social business in a joint venture between Grameen and the French food giant Groupe Danone to supply low-cost nutrient-enriched yohurt for Bangladeshi children.

Po: - don't sell through stores............Avon's initial success was by selling its affordable fragrances through a network of representatives, (ding dong! Avon calling!) rather than stores. Avon has around 4.4 million representatives in 143 countries

...........on-line selling via the internet is one of the faster growing retail sales area

Po: - everse accepted management practices........Revlon's Charles Revson, a malevolent dictator, who stated that as he had built his business by being a bastard, he would continue to run it by being a bastard: "I'll always be a bastard and do not try to change me"

Po: - sell products at cost..................HP makes little out of selling printers but makes "bucketloads" from selling the ink cartridges for the printers

Po: - give things away free......this has resulted in "collaborative innovation" whereby giving away anything free results in a "bigger pie" for everyone. This trend is evident in Blogs and the Wikipedia online encyclopedia. IBM has embraced the concept as well, giving away intellectual property and expertise to open source software groups, universities, customers, and other IT companies, etc. Furthermore, it has found that these "freebies" are a potent weapon in handling the likes of Microsoft who are selling expensive products, etc. For example, IBM has 600 programmers working on Linux; it is estimated that by working on an open system, IBM is getting a world-class operating system that satisfies customers' needs for a small fraction it would cost to develop it themselves. Furthermore, the freebies are helping open doors internationally, such as in China where a system based on Linux will be used to connect all libraries. Openness is a great strategy so long as you keep inventing products needed by the market.

Po: - sell both premier and private label products together...profits have increased with manufacturers advertising premium-priced brands while encouraging private-label versions. Big brands have maintained or improved their margins even as their private brands proliferate. The rationale for this is that there are 2 types of buyers: brand seekers (who only buy branded products) and private label seekers (who only buy private label products)

Po: - take the bank to the customer.......with the high transport costs in Fiji (it can be up to 10% of average weekly earnings), ANZ has taken the bank to the customers: with United Nations Development Plan's help, it has outfitted 6 mobile banks to visit 300 villages a month.

Po: - "welfare" nations out-perform "free-market" nations....traditional supply-side economists claim that the best way to achieve well-being for the poor is by rapid economic growth; while the higher taxes to fund social insurance will cripple prosperity. But despite higher taxes and social outlays, the social welfare nations in the Nordic area out-outperform the Anglo-Saxon "free marketer" nations on the economic indicators, such as poverty rates, national income per working-age population, greater budget surpluses as a share of GDP, etc. One of the reasons for this is the focus on R & D and higher education by the Nordic nations plus encouraging low-skilled people to work in the key quality-of-life areas such as child care, health and as carers for the elderly and disabled

Po: - work from home....call centres are finding it harder to recruit staff and staff are leaving at unsustainable rates. Also, many of the call centres have unacceptable management practices, such as timed toilet breaks and excessive pressure on the call times. Consequently, some operators are encouraging people to work from home; all they need is a suitable computer, a headset and access to broadband. Furthermore, the happiest and most stable call agents are likely to be women older than 40 years. Older people have more empathy when dealing with people who are experiencing problems with a service or product. An interesting example of this is an aged care facility being used as a backup call center.

..one organisation found that productivity increased by 25 percent when people work from home. Increasingly, more of the home-based workforce is highly qualified, very professional and committed.

.......a 14 person hedge fund found that its staff could work from home using the latest technology and did not need to be on Wall St

.......one of Australia's largest cattle companies operates its administrative office in "demountables" behind a public "dog hotel" in a coastal rural village that is 100s of kms away from any regional centre or capital city or cattle station. Modern technology, especially in communications, allows this to happen and allows staff to pursue their preferred life-style away from the city.

(NB In addition, this has resulted in significant cost savings, eg office rental, etc.)

Po: - treat customers like staff.....Microsoft used many thousands of its customers to help develop and test new products. Thus, for some products, Microsoft's customers pay more towards the development of products than the company itself.

Po: - focus on staff first.................traditional firms focus on the customer first, while South West Airlines focused on staff first. If you have the right staff, they are customer-oriented anyway.

Po: - use alcohol to improve productivity and reduce health problems...........in Kenya beer is very popular and Kenyans like it cheap - this has encouraged illegal home brewing with no government taxes, no standards or inspections and with contamination from water supplies. Thus, alcohol has become a serious health problem causing blindness, problematic hangovers and related illnesses that routinely lowers productivity in Kenya's labour-intense industries. A multinational corporation (Diageo) that sells premium alcohol beverages saw an opportunity by focusing on the best outcomes for society. They started dialogue with the National Government on producing a low-cost, "healthy" beer that would be widely available and give the buyers of the illicit beer a reasonable alternative. The government agreed to reduce the surcharge on this beer as it realized it would collect greater revenue with more taxable beer being consumed. Furthermore, it would reduce the serious health problem that was lowering industrial productivity. The company selected responsible community leaders who would sell their beer and gave then the appropriate training and equipment - thus encouraging new small-businesses to flourish

Po: - customers determine the price they pay............in the music industry the business model has changed from selling LPs and CDs in large numbers in order to recover the manufacturing, printing, shipping and retail costs plus royalties. With digitisation and Internet, there is now no need for the expensive recording studios, etc as top-quality albums can be made on a decent laptop and the Internet is used to distribute the album. Consequently, the current cost of manufacturing and distributing is minimal. As a result, in 2007 an English band released an album entitled "In Rainbows" as a pay-what-you-like digital download. Many experienced operators in the music industry thought that they were mad. It was successful because

"... 40 percent of fans paid an average of 3 UK pounds each for the album, making the band nearly 1.5 million UK pounds......they had licensed the music and it went on sale as a CD too..."

Richard Branson, 2008

Po: - put passenger, not cabin crew, in control.........................traditionally, services on airplanes, such as meals, movies, etc were free and only available at specific times during the flight. This has resulted in low quality food, limited choice and customers having low expectations. On the other hand, for a fee some air lines, like Virgin America, started to offer movies, food, etc when passengers wanted them. This area of non-ticket items has expanded to now include banking (Air New Zealand) where frequent flyer club members become financial service clients with a debit card which stores cash, airline miles and foreign currency. The airline collects a small percentage each time the card is used and charges a monthly fee if the card is not used. Another example is the selling of options on ticket prices where would-be travellers agree on a ticket price in advance for a small fee that is charged irrespective of whether the ticket is used, ie fare lock (Continental airlines). This reverses the traditional role and puts the passengers in control, rather than the cabin crew and other airline staff. In fact, revenue from non-ticket items is becoming critical to airlines' profitability, especially with continuing fuel price increases. Ryanair has 19% of its operating revenue from non-ticket items. In 2011, revenues from non-ticket items rose by 44% to an estimated $A30 billion worldwide. Thus airlines are transforming themselves from airline companies into "e-tailers".

Po: - back to the future.........................a successful Australian management consultancy group had to re-think its strategies owing to the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) (starting late 2008). The GFC resulted in Australian clients cancelling assignments worth $100,000s. As this consultancy had started business outside Australia in 1970s, it renewed its focus on international work and as a result it re-vitalised its business.

Po: - employees first, customers second............................traditionally, organisations focus on customers first. On the other hand, some very successful companies, such as Southwest Airlines, HCL Technologies Ltd (an Indian ID services company), focus on hiring, training and retaining top-quality staff. They treat their staff like customers to increase their desire to stay with the firm, and find that the positive staff attitude automatically filters on to the customers.

Po: - no budgeting...............for a wealth management group, rather than comparing the performance of the bank's client advisers with a budget number, they were evaluated monthly on the other criteria, such as revenues, new net money, cost/income ratio, return on investment, etc against their own previous year's results and against their peers. The results were published as performance league tables. Net profits increased by 50% in 2 years.

Po: - no link between IQ and achievement...........................a high IQ does not guarantee success. There are many people with a high IQ who are less successful than those with a lower IQ. Other factors are involved in achieving success, such as EQ, personality, timing, creativity, etc.

Po: - people are prisoners of their past............................if you want to understand how a cultural or ethnic group will react to particular situation, you need to understand how they have handled this in the past, ie cultural legacies or social inheritance. For example, in some groups, a "culture of honour" goes back generations and does not disappear when these people migrate to new geographical areas, eg Mafia from Italy to USA.

Po: - sustainability drives better investment returns................................sustainability issues around environment, social, governance, long-term economic challenges, etc are not necessarily line items on the balance sheet. On the other hand, they are fundamental to how a business operates as they can reflect and determine the corporate culture that drives business strategies, etc. The non-traditional or more-difficult-to-quantify factors, such as sustainability, are just as important as traditional factors in analysing the performance of the business and/or management team. Sustainability issues include how to attract and retain staff, integrity, the culture of the organisation, how you operate in your community, how you think about operating in the environment, governance, ethics, etc. Over 4 years, the London-based "Generation" (an investment management group which has incorporated sustainability as a core investment criterion) has significantly outperformed the traditional investment management groups. The key people behind "Generation" are Al Gore (climate change advocate and ex-Vice President of USA) and David Blood (investment banker). This focus on sustainability in investment criteria probably is regarded as having a greater potential to engender a shift to a low carbon economy than all government policy.

Po: - labour flexibility and high taxes result in a win-win situation.............."flexicurity" policy as practised by Denmark combines flexibility of the labour market by allowing easy hiring and firing, providing security for "out of work" people through generous social security payments alongside significant spending on training to help people get back to work, plus high taxes to pay for the policy. This has allowed Denmark to change from a declining economy to one of the top 5 nations in the world re the gross national product per capita. Furthermore, the Danish workforce has one of the world's highest work force participation rates for females and for people in the age group 55 to 64 years. Keeping the elderly in work delays their retirement and reduces the public cost of supporting them through pensions, etc

Po: - recruit teams, not individuals.................................................to overcome the fear of young Indian women worried about working nights in call centres in Bangalore and getting robbed or attacked when travelling home at night, a firm (24/7 Customer) invited individual recruits to assemble a group of friends and apply as a team. These teams had some authority over scheduling. This method attracted better quality staff than traditional recruitment, reduced staff turnover and increased productivity by 10%.

Po: - emotion, not knowledge, is the catalyst for change............................most organisations focus on rational and factual findings like statistics, data, information, etc to try to convince people to change. On the other hand, getting the emotional buy-in is more powerful. For example, in US hospitals, there is a need for doctors to hand-wash more frequently to prevent patient infection. In the US it is estimated that thousands of patients die every year from preventable bacterial infections. Even though most doctors realise this, many do not adequately wash their hands to prevent disease spreading. To get the message across, after lunch a group of doctors in a hospital was asked to press their hands on agar in sterile petrie dishes containing a growth medium. The agar plates were cultivated and photographed. The photos were made public and revealed what wasn't visible to the naked eye, ie the doctors' hands were covered in blobs of bacteria that could be passed onto patients. The impact was impressive. As a result, hand hygiene compliance jumped from around 80% to 100%.

Po: - imports are necessary to create exports and economic growth ...........trade in intermediate products accounted for almost 2/3 of global goods traded (2004). Intermediate goods refers to products imported for inclusion into making more complex products that are then on-sold and exported. This means that products are assembled from the lowest cost components and delivered across a seamless supply chain. This involves outsourcing/offshoring that is expected to continue to grow as it allows the global supply/production networks to be exploited by firms using the comparative advantages of economies/countries/regions. Factors in determining competitive advantage are based around quality and cheapness; they include currency exchange rates, labour (its cost, its skills level, etc), cost of non-labour inputs (like energy, etc), closeness to consumer, economies of scale, market forces (like regional networks, economic integration, etc), government regulation, etc.

NB Owning the design is the key factor in financial success in this system.

Po: - ration rather than increase price...............rather than chasing short term profit by increasing prices when basic commodities like food are in short supply, a successful Pacific conglomerate (70+ years old) has always rationed these basic commodities. The local Pacific political leaders like this firm and its approach as it reduces the possibility of popular unrest when basic commodities are in short supply and their prices rise; as people are unable to afford any price increases.

Po: - don't have others' baggage........................................a successful Fijian Indian businessman decided to go into the insurance industry after a major national disaster caused considerable damage. The current firms in the industry were all going to increase their premiums to cover their recent losses from the disaster. This new player convinced his bankers to support him as he did not suffer the losses of the incumbents and could thus charge the lower, "old" premium.

Po: - use junk food to reduce health issues...................................."unhealthy", processed, take-aways, fast-food (sometimes called junk food) is commonly claimed to be one of the major factors or problems causing health issues like obesity and diabetes. It is now claimed (ABC TV news, October 2013) that more people are dying from obesity than starvation. These health issues are due to high levels of "unhealthy" ingredients (like salt, sugar and fat) in convenience foods. On the other hand, its popularity or mass appeal is based on its being tasty, people's desire for variety, convenience and cheapness. Given its mass appeal, it has been suggested that small, beneficial changes in processed food will have a greater impact on people's eating habits, and reduce the health risks more readily than demanding wholesale changes to alternative "wholesome" foodstuffs like farm fresh, unprocessed, local, seasonal, "real", etc. Various attempts to radically change eating habits and foster widespread acceptance of more wholesome food ingredients have been unsuccessful; strategies such as public education, subsidising wholesome food, regulations, taxes on some foodstuffs, banning, McDonalds trying products like McLean Deluxe, McPaste, McHotdog, McAfrica, etc, have all failed to significantly modify eating trends. Some reasons for these failures include high cost, lack of plentiful and/or regular supply, lack of pleasant taste and texture (doesn't taste or look good), inconvenient, (longer preparation time, shorter shelf-life. etc), poor advertising/promotions, etc.

(NB Whenever our energy intake exceeds our body's needs by 5%, the result is the energy accumulates as fat. Additionally, while exercise is beneficial and improves health by reducing the incidence of heart disease, diabetes, etc, it has little impact on obesity)

Some suggested changes to processed food to handle burgeoning health issues while maintaining its mass appeal include

· Reducing

i) portion sizes (research has shown that a meal can be trimmed by 30% without eaters noticing it)

ii) some ingredients (cheap bulking agents like fats, selected sugars, salt, etc)
iii) reduce consumption of prepared food that includes fructose and/or "corn syrup"
iv) eat more fibre & less fat/carbohydrates

. Do things in moderation

· Change cooking methods (less or no fat, butter, etc; increase grilling)

· Increasing wholesome ingredients (fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, complex carbohydrates, fibre, cereals, lean meat, fish and water) in the meals

These changes need to be done while maintaining taste and texture, ie

"...trimming unwanted ingredients while preserving the sensations they deliver..."

David Freedman, 2013

Some ways to maintain taste include

· Use of

i) "phantom aromas", ie create the sensation of certain tastes even though those taste sources are not present in the food (eg the smell of vanilla can essentially mask reductions in sugar by up to 25%)

ii) fat "cushions" (the release of various flavours on the tongue gradually and allowing them to linger)

iii) temporal profile (any edible compound derived from plants slows the release of flavour molecules)

iv) replacing flavours with similarly flavoured compounds that come on and leave more slowly

NB There are around 5,000 chemical compounds approved by US Food and Drug Administration which represent the base components of all known flavours

· Find ways to deliver the eating experience that fats, sugar and "problem carbs" provide, while having less of these ingredients in the food

· Don't promote the food as good for you, as people have an expectation that "healthy" food has a less pleasant taste and texture.

Re: texture: there are around 20 different ways that gums can assist (gums = edible ingredients mostly found in tree sap, seeds and other plant materials), eg gums can give the full textured body that sugared drinks offer c.f. the hollowness of sugar free beverages, etc

Recent neuroscience, nanotechnology, etc research into processing and eating is demonstrating ways to help, eg

· As the first and last bites determine our lasting impression, make them taste pleasant by placing healthier ingredients in the middle of food, leaving most of the fat and sugar on the outsides and ends, like in chocolate bars

· Using gimmicks, like adding weight to food containers as that gives the impression that it contains more calories

· Using food ingredients to boost satiety, eg a starch derived from tapioca gives dishes a "refined-carb" taste and mouthful that acts more like fibre in the body; this stops the appetite from "spiking" later

· There is a perception that processing food leads to quicker digestion but can use processing to slow down digestion

· Understanding food at the molecular level

NB

"...The difference between losing weight and not losing weight is a few hundred calories a day..."

Robert Kushner as quoted by David Freedman, 2013

This is a critical threshold for long-term weight loss as bigger reductions will risk leaving people too hungry to stick to a weight-loss program!!!!!!!!

Po: - no artificial climate in buildings (green building)...........city high rise/high density & skyscrapers, etc of glass, steel & concrete are reliant on air conditioning & other mechanical means, like glazing, to make them liveable. A more natural approach involving natural cross ventilation, shaded indoor/outdoor rooms, lushly vegetated exteriors & gardens (including "sky gardens", "vertical gardens", etc) are gaining popularity. Benefits include the psychological advantages of being near living things, the role that plants play in cooling down rooms, plants performing air cleaning functions that otherwise were done by mechanical means, their filtering out glare & dust, and blocking traffic noise. On the negative side, plants require regular maintenance to remain healthy, especially in dry climates, high altitude, etc

Po: - compete with itself...........to forestall organisations becoming victims of their own success and size, they need to reinvent themselves. With increasing size and success, organisations tend to become more concerned with maintaining their successful products/services, etc rather than innovating and challenging the status quo. To handle this there is a need for developing a small independent or autonomous group away from the mainstream organisation whose members are allowed to pursue innovation and not be bothered or interfered with by the rest of the organisation

Po: - mobiles can kill..........the use of mobile phones has revolutionised communications. On the other hand, they are dangerous, ie some research has indicated that holding mobile phones near the ear/head has increased the risk of brain cancer, and they are used in political violence, eg

- used by terrorists to remotely detonate bombs, etc

- areas in Africa like Algeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda and Zimbabwe that have mobile phone coverage are 50% more likely to have experienced incidents of armed conflict than those without mobile phone coverage

- improved communications between, and within, rebel groups, ie by using mobile phones, villagers can relay information about military movements to other villages

Po: - ethical fashions........... the fashion industry has not been known for its ethics: consider the wearing of skins and furs from (rare) animals, drug use & abuse, abusive & inappropriate behaviour such as insensitivity to WW2's Auschwitz survivors, glamorising anorexia, sexualising teenagers, portraying violence towards women, using cheap labour, etc. The fashion industry has been described as "ephemeral, dangerous and unfair". Recent attempts to manufacture in Africa are being encouraged as Africa has artisans who make beautiful things by hand, as opposed to mass production elsewhere.

"...The competitive advantage of Africa is an incredible capacity for manual work, artisans who have incredible skills which are very beautiful and very suitable for producing luxurious products..."

Simone Cipriani as quoted by Matthew Drummond, 2013

Profit margins for up-market labels are large enough so that proper wages can be paid and help the poor in developing countries of Africa. This will help them to lift themselves out of poverty and ensure sustainable development. This is different from a world of mass-market, just-in-time, rapid response clothing brands that are produced in "slave-labour" type of conditions in developing Asian countries like Bangladesh (where a recent building collapse killed 1,127 garment workers). Despite manufacturing in Asia being more convenient and the product range being greater, African products are seen as "artisan" or "traditional". Furthermore, these artisans use recycled material like key rings that are made from hand-beaten, recycled car parts; hand woven cotton to make couture dresses; they use African traditions of body adornment (beading, jewellery, headdresses, masks) that defines a person's place in the local community as a basis for what top tier fashion brands currently offer their customers.

Po: - media provides research assistant ...............a management consultancy firm uses a newspaper whose journalists write in-depth articles on topics around management/business /government, etc as a great source of information/inspiration for its consultancy. This has proved cost-effective re the time and money required to otherwise conduct the research.

Po: - no upfront cost or site visit for solar electricity installation.......consumers want low-cost electricity. A viable source is solar but the initial capital investment can be high. A possible solution is leasing, ie no upfront capital investment. Using third-party financiers (like GE, Lowe, etc), Sungevity is providing solar power with no money upfront as customers are paying a monthly flat fee which is less than what they currently pay for electricity. In the USA, this resulted in leasing in 2013 accounting for 75% of solar installations, compared with 45% in March 2011. Projections indicate this trend will triple, ie the US residential solar market value jumped from $US 1.3 in 2006 to 5.7 billion by 2013. Third-party investors are willing to provide funds to cover the upfront capital cost in return for a steady income stream over the asset's life. Investors get a good return on their capital while households receive lower electricity prices. Integral to this is the use of Google Earth to scope the solar-generating capacity of a home rather than via physical site visits to take measurements, etc. for installation. Furthermore, the cost of solar panels is falling. As power demand is simultaneously declining, the traditional fossil fuel suppliers of power are under increasing pressure from cheaper, cleaner alternatives like solar and natural gas.

Po: - money over the table, not under the table.......in a developing country, corruption was rife in the department providing vehicle registrations and driving licences, eg vehicle owners would bribe to get their vehicles to falsely pass inspection for road worthiness, etc. A new CEO introduced the concept of a flying squad to check vehicles that had just completed registration inspections. If the vehicles still had faults, then staff members who had passed the vehicle incorrectly had their files marked for poor performance; too many poor performance comments ultimately resulted in employment termination. On the other hand, if the vehicle was correctly passed, then the staff member's file was indicated "good performance"; bonuses and promotions were given to those with regular "good performance" comments.

Po: - flip the classroom..........this means students watched lectures at home and then completed their homework in class. Initially it was expected that free online video university courses (MOOC) would replace the traditional tertiary lecture-based approach. This on-line concept has offended many educators' core values as they prefer face-to-face contact, plus it threatens their jobs. Additionally, a higher percentage of students are failing online courses. A different approach is now looking at how online lectures can complement the traditional higher educational experience, rather than replace it. This has resulted in SPOCs (small private online classes) as opposed to the massive open ones; this is called "blended learning". The basic idea is to use MOOC-style video lectures and other online features as course material in actual, normal sized college classes. The lectures are assigned as homework with the instructors using the actual class period to answer students' questions, work with them on projects and assignments, etc. This allows educators to tailor the curriculum, pace and grading system to their particular students' requirements, etc. Initial results show a higher percentage pass, eg at San Jose State University, 91% passed using blended learning compared with a 65% average pass rate using only traditional course elements, such as textbooks, lecture theatres, etc.

Po: - make department retail stores into tourist destinations .......................................with declining market retail share for geographically-sited department stores owing to decades of competition from specialty shops and, more recently, online retail, department stores are now using celebrities, fashion parades, art shows, introducing new services (manicures, eyebrow waxes, personalised shopping, etc); reinventing themselves as hip, brand houses and stores within stores, etc to keep and attract customers

Po: - make natural batteries, ie virus-based.......................................using genetically modified viruses as batteries by coating them with the necessary materials required for the anode and cathode in a small button size lithium-ion cells. These lithium-air batteries oxidise lithium at the anode and reduce oxygen at the cathode to induce a current flow. As the oxygen comes from the air, there is less need for heavy internal materials normally used in batteries; this should greatly increase energy density (the amount of power that can be stored in a given weight of battery). The cathode is usually harder to produce than the anode because it needs to be highly conductive. Viruses are used to capture molecules from magnesium oxide in a solution of water. The material is a ray of magnesium-oxide nano-wires with rough, spiky surfaces. The spikes increase the surface area available for electrochemical reactions (for charging & discharging) in the battery. Some palladium is added to boost connectivity. A bacteriophage is used with the virus (like biosynthesis). The process works at room temperature using water-based solutions while traditional methods are energy intense, involve high temperatures and hazardous chemicals. The aim is to produce a lithium-air battery with an energy density more than twice that of the best lithium-ion cells. This is a great advance over the typical lithium-ion, the earlier nickel-cadmium battery and the lead acid battery.

Po: - a wine glass with no stem.............................................................an 11th generation member of an Austrian glassware family (Riedel) developed a wine glass without a stem. This challenged the company's concept of its traditional, successful, elegantly simple wineglasses and received negative comments from some members of the family. Luckily, others saw its value and it has become the company's famed O series; 10 years later it is the most successful collection of varietal-specific glasses in the firm's 300 year history and the most copied set of wineglass designs. Recently, Riedel has realigned its brand to identify with the wine industry rather than with tableware, as the latter was stagnating as people shunn traditional silverware and porcelain.

Po: - paint over mistakes........................................................when using electrical typewriters like IBM (1950s), correcting typing mistakes caused problems, ie using the standard typewriter erasers to remove ink from typed pages, it would leave a smear mark on the page. Bette McMurray, an executive secretary (USA), noticed that artists painting signboards never corrected by erasing; they always painted over their errors. By experimenting with paint and other substances, she developed a quick drying white fluid to correct typing mistakes; it was called it "liquid paper". In 1979 Gillette Corporation bought Liquid Paper for $US 47.5 m..

Po: - insects as food........................................................entomophagy (consumption of insects) is a regular part of the diets of more than 2 b. people. Studies have shown that insects are full of health benefits with studies showing thier bones are high in protein, calcium, zinc, iron and vitamin A; they are easier to farm than livestock, use less water and emit fewer greenhouse gases. Thus eating bugs would help fight world hunger and reduce pollution. But there is a mental/emotional barrier, eg the feeling of disgust, to getting insects onto Westerners' plates. With the help of anthropologist, psychologists, and cognitive neuroscientists and start-up companies like Exo, Six Foods & Bitty Foods, etc, are working to bring edible insects to Western cuisine. This involves understanding the emotion of disgust by finding ways to package and market the products so that people don't think about what they are eating
(NB Eating has a strong social learning components)

Po: - use sushi to encourage eating raw fish........................................................Californian rolls (sushi) were invented in Los Angeles in the 1970s to ease Westerners into eating raw fish. Chefs combined king crab meat with avocado, which has the texture of raw fish, and wrapped it in the layers of rice and seaweed. This has led to sushi becoming a successful stand-alone dining product.
(NB Eating has a strong social learning components)

Po: - use a bear to sell lavender.......................................................a small gift shop in North West Tasmania used a fluffy bear called Robbie Bear (a purple teddy bear stuffed with lavender and wheat) as a way to encourage people to buy lavender. This tapped into the psyche of 30-year-old Chinese women and took the Chinese market by storm. This phenomena made the front-page of the Wall Street Journal

Po: - clients come to me..................................a senior consultant close to retiring was trying to work out a way to reduce travel time to his clients but still provide the same service. Normally, he would go to his clients, which included international travel. By developing an app, he found a way clients could solve their challenges and he still receive payment for providing effective solutions
..................................a successful lawyer, whose office was in business end of the CBD, used to regularly visit an upmarket coffee shop that most of his clients frequented or walked past. He kept in regular contact with most of his clients via the coffee shop

Po: - fight fire with fire..................................bushfires are a major problem during Australian summer months when the vegetation is dry. One way to manage a large bushfire is to start another fire in front of the main fire front as a way to starve it of dry vegetation to burn. This is called back-burning.

Po: - farming replacing hunting..................................with 90% of the world's natural fisheries deemed either depleted or over-exploited, especially for species like the endangered bluefin tuna (sushi staple), farming fish is a way of conserving wild stock while coping with increasing consumption. This involves focus on farming growing supply, ie use the sea as a farm, rather than hunting concept, ie
"...plant the sea and herd its animal using the sea as farmers instead of hunters..."
Jacques Cousteau as quoted by James Greiff, 2015

Some examples around 90% of all shrimp eaten in the USA are farmed; similarly, for European sea bass; for salmon, around 70% come from farms in Canada, Norway, Britain and the US.

On the other hand, farming is not the natural environment for fish. Farming involves packing thousands or even millions of fish in close quarters that can favour transmission of infections from bacteria and parasites plus a source of pollution from animal waste, etc. There is some hope that genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as wild salmon, are a way forward but environmentalists and consumer groups are actively against selling the modified fish

NB Fish are more efficient at converting feed into protein than cattle. It takes up to 1.4 kg of feed to produce 0.5 g of salmon; whereas up to 5.5 kg of feed is required to yield 0.5 kg of beef.

Po: - fruit ripens in kitchen............with native possums' preference for nearly ripe fruit, homeowners with fruit trees need to pick the fruit before it ripens enough for possums to eat. Thus a strategy of picking the fruit just before it ripens enough for the possums to eat and allowing the final ripening of the fruit in the kitchen

Po: - slow food movement............as a counter to the fast, convenient, "junk" food culture, the Slow Food movement was founded in the mid-1980s by Carlo Petrini, a left wing political activist turned professional gourmet. When a branch of McDonald's was about to open in Rome's Piazza di Spagna (ie a hamburger joint next door to a national treasure!), Carlo regarded it as an affront to Rome's way of life and a threat to its culinary heritage. Choosing a snail as a symbol, Slow Food began promoting "the right to pleasure, conviviality, and slow living". One of the issues facing them was the whittling away of biodiversity caused by environmental decline and shortsighted policies. As the available range/variety of fruit and vegetables, domestic animal breeds and processed foods, such as cheese and confectionery, specific local dishes and flavours, etc was rapidly diminishing, the movement's members were keen to save the local fauna and flora. Thus, they launched an "Ark of Taste" (a catalogue of endangered food products requiring rescuing). They wanted to save endangered foods of proven "territoriality, traditionalism and gastronomic excellence" and support the small-scale producers involved. There was great pressure on these smaller scale producers to produce less demanding, more lucrative personal herbs, like basil for the pesto industry and/or sell out to property developers as the area's (Riviera) demand for holiday homes was high. The movement helps with funding and supply chain management to infrastructure and the creation of sales networks, like the association of asparagus growers to help promote their produce to regional markets, restaurants, large quality food superstores, etc. Professional groups like butchers, bakers, cheese makers, wine producers, shepherds, livestock breeders, fishermen, confectioners, etc have been involved. In 2009, they joined forces to form the "Alliance between Cooks and the Slow Food Presida"; this brings together 325 Italian eateries committed to supporting the project by including the products on their menus. There are more than 400 presidia worldwide; with over 50% in Italy.

A similar phenomenon has occurred with reading: with the digital age encouraging a new way of reading, ie skimming through the torrent of information online or fast reading, in contrast to traditional deep reading circuitry developed over several millennia, ie slow reading. There is now a slow reading movement to counter the fast reading move.

Po: - stop the clock............in the World Cricket Series (starting in the 1970s) there was a one day (day/night), cricket game between Australia and the West Indies being played at the Sydney Cricket Ground (Australia). The Sydney Council that owns the cricket ground would only allow the overhead flood lights, used to illuminate the playing field, to be on for a couple of hours in the night. The game was reaching an exciting finale but time was running out, ie with the lights due to be manually turned off before the game would finish. The official whose responsibility it was to turn off the lights was following the time from the main clock tower that was mechanically operated. Kerry Packer, who financed the World Cricket Series, suggested his staff stop the mechanical clock. A wooden pole was placed in the mechanical clock's system and stopped it around 10 minutes prior to its reaching the allotted time. Thus, the exciting game finished and then the clock was restarted and lights turned off.

Po: - buy locally, not overseas............Jack Ma (ex-English teacher who has no background in computing and claims not to understand technology) is a dot-com billionaire who founded the Alibaba group in late 1990s. This group is China's largest online retailer (2014); with global merchandise volumes similar to Wal Mart. Alibaba's 2 main websites (Taobao Marketplace and Tmall.com) account for 60% of the packages shipped through the Chinese postal system. He is a serial disruptor who thinks differently and is willing to take risks. He is an outsider who creates new markets by reimagining old industries, such as retail, mobile phone communications, banking and finance; he is currently exploring possibilities in the department store business and film production. For example, he started Yu'e Bao (a high interest money market product); by February 2014, 81 million people signed up for the product which has US$ 40 billion in assets under management.

Starting in the mid 1990s he realised the Chinese were unable to order locally on the Internet, ie they could order from countries outside China but not from within China. Initially Ma's proposals were rejected by the Chinese authorities. Thus he went out on his own and linked himself with professionals, like Goldman Sachs as investors, and prides himself as being a motivator. He started an online business-to-business marketplace connecting Chinese exporters with overseas buyers; this was followed by Taobao (consumer-to-consumer platform) that successfully competed with eBay in China; in fact, eBay has since exited the Chinese market

Po: - never too old............there is an emerging worldwide trend of "senior-preneurship" or "grey" entrepreneurship, ie people over 50 starting high-growth, risky ventures. In the past decade the greatest entrepreneurial activity in the western world has been in the 55 - 64 age bracket, (Tony Featherstone, 2014). These people are drawing on their lifetime of work experience and learning. As people are living longer and healthier lives, they are willing to take more risks. In addition, retrenchment of older, costly workers in full-time jobs is driving this trend. As the pension and their savings (including superannuation) are becoming inadequate to support their desired lifestyle, older people need to earn extra income. Some ways senior-preneurs do this is by launching a small business to supplement their income; others have launched a lifestyle business, perhaps working part-time to stay active; some have launched fast-growth ventures that employ others and help the economy. It is claimed that older people should take less risk than younger people as they have a lower capacity to recover from financial setbacks, less understanding of technology and are less able (physically and mentally) to handle extreme workloads and the stress of a fast growth venture. Yet research shows otherwise, ie they are more capable of starting and managing a business than their younger peers as they have higher capital, greater work and life experience, wider and deeper personal networks, and better skills in controlling risk. On the other hand, the longer the older people stay out of the workforce, the more their professional skills, personal networks and risk-taking capacity weakens

Po: - the key to success is failure............there is the spaghetti/marshmallow design challenge that involves a project with 20 pieces of uncooked spaghetti, a metre of tape, a marshmallow and the ball of string. The aim is to create the tallest freestanding structure to support the marshmallow in 18 minutes. The group that outperforms business people, students, technicians, professionals such as engineers, architects, etc is kindergarten students. They are not limited by assumptions or rules, (eg they asked for more spaghetti!); they don't get into power games; they don't plan, etc. They use continual experimentation, ie keep trying different things, creating and discarding if it doesn't work. In other words, they're not afraid of failure. By trying and failing, they learnt what didn't work, which is important in figuring out what will work. Multiple iterations is the key to learning, rather than single-minded focus around single idea. Also, how you react to failure is important: it should be treated as a learning experience. Remember: talent is not a fixed thing; it can be developed, eg challenges are seen as an opportunity to develop their current and new talents. The greater the challenge, the more talent will be developed.

Po: - experience at a low price............in the past people paid for fine dining if they wanted an experience. People aren't prepared to pay these prices any more but still want an experience. The novelty of lining up for an "in" brand, ie offering an authentic version of the much loved dessert, is Messina's  formula for success. Buying a scoop of high-end ice cream was a way to enjoy a night out for a couple of bucks rather than spending $100+ for a meal. Furthermore, commercial landlords are keen to sign on Messina, as it is a crowd puller and develops a cult-like following, plus it is a savvy user of social media

Po: - work on people's strengths...................to improve staff performance we usually give training that focuses on improving their weaknesses. Yet people like to work on their strengths and perform best this way. In fact many successful organisations work on people's strengths and match staff up who have complementary skills, ie one person's strengths are matched or paired with another's weaknesses, etc. Furthermore, some powerful techniques, like Appreciative Inquiry, Positive Psychology, etc, focus on the strengths of an organisation/individual rather than on areas that are seen as negatives.

Po: - need natural light to buy................... a study of 108 US retail stores in one firm found that people spent 40% more in shops with skylights than those lit only by electricity (Rosie Blau, 2014)

Po: - taking cash from the mattress to the mobile phone................... in sub-Saharan Africa, more than 75% of the adult population have no bank account (2011). In Kenya, there is 1 ATM for every 18,000 persons, while in the USA there is 1 for every 740 persons. Thus most Kenyans are not part of the formal banking system as they have no bank accounts (like cheque &, savings), no credit cards, etc. To transfer money is a problem for millions of informal-sector workers in Kenya. To handle this, a grey economy has developed and is historically operated by using a blend of ad hoc and do-it-yourself financing processes, with cash and IOUs dominating. On the other hand, they have mobile phones. Hence a mobile-money service launched by Safaricom (major Kenyan telecommunications firm with around 70% of the Kenyan market) called "M-Pesa" (Swahili for money) where money is stored on mobile phones. Then for a small fee it can be transferred to another phone number on the network to pay bills, send money to relatives, etc. It is called "mobile money". M-Pesa is not an electronic currency as such; rather it is a substitute for debit cards and mobile banking apps. It has 80,000 agents throughout the country to function as tellers as a massive virtual bank. Thus payment and debt collection do not require face-to-face interaction. It is

- convenient (don't have to wait in long, all-day queues to pay bills),

- cheaper (less commission than alternatives),

- reliable (money gets to destination),

- safe (no need to physically send money as cash)

- a chance to build assets.

It has grown rapidly

"...by 2012, 86% of Kenyan mobile loan subscribers used mobile money and by 2013, M-Pesa's transactions amounted to some $35 million daily. Annualised, that's more than a quarter of Kenya's GDP..."

Dayo Olopade, 2014

Technology-wise Africa has leapfrogged the Western world where in the latter smart phones are guiding changes in the way we learn, work and socialise but not in the realms of finance, like mobile money. In Europe and America around 5% of the adult population have used mobile money; while sub Sahara Africa, it is around 16%.

In other African countries, organisations are establishing mobile-payment systems like Paga, EcoCash, Splash Mobile Money, Tigo Cash, Airtel Money, Organge Money, etc. Recently Rwanda Revenue Authority has allowed citizens to declare and pay taxes via their mobile phones, and new ventures are using mobile money as a platform to facilitate other services such as insurance, analytics, consumer credit, e-commerce, etc. Increasingly mobile payments are being used as a platform for more complex products, such as EcoCash to move interest earned on savings accounts (Safaricom is partnering with the commercial bank of Africa on a similar service); in East Africa, farmers pay agricultural insurance premiums and receive reimbursements using mobile-money platforms; Orange Mali has joined with MFS Africa to launch an insurance program for pregnant women; an electronic financial footprint provides data that helps merchants understand the purchasing habits of the rising consumer class (this could lead to a rudimentary credit-reporting system).

Po: - food with no food...............molecular gastronomy is changing the way we look at cooking and eating by deconstructing cooking into chemical and physical properties. Celebrity chef Heston Blumenthai is a well-known identity in this field. It is a way to reduce the cost and waste in processing and transporting food and preparing meals. For example, making a wine sauce with phenols rather than using wine. Grapes use resources and cost money to turn into wine, and then fuel is needed to transport what is mostly water which is then poured into a hot saucepan which results in boiling off the alcohol and water!!! Why not just extract the phenols from the grape juice at the farm by membrane and sell the powder!!!!!

Po: - challenge conventional rules...............Friends has been the dominant TV sitcom for 20+ years since it started in the 1994.Yet based on a pilot run and market research, it was suggested that Friends would not be a successful TV show as it did not obey the conventional rules of comedy. Yet

"...between 1994 and its finale in 2004, Friends attracted audiences of between 20 and 29 m. in the USA. After its second season, it never left the Nielsen ratings top five. Later in its runs, when the world around it grew more threatening, Friends' appeal as a safe haven - a virtual Central Park - was so strong that it ratings increased 17% after September 11, 2001 attacks on New York City......the final episode of friends drew nearly 52.5 m. viewers in the US, beaten only by the holy trinity of Seinfeld, Cheers and M*A*S*H as the most watched finale in American TV history..."

Andrew Harrison, 2014

Po: moving billboard...............despite attempts to popularise Indigenous Australian art with corporate firms like Budget car rentals dressing their staff in Indigenous designs, Sheridan making a bed linen range using indigenous art, designers (George Gross & Prue Acton) using Indigenous designs, etc, indigenous art was not very visual and popular before the 1990s. The idea of moving billboard by Ross Moriarty resulted in Qantas (Australia-based airline) painting Indigenous art on the outside of its jumbo jets. This celebration of Australia's Indigenous identity has resulted in a successful business and raised awareness around the Indigenous issues of dispossession, dislocation, diversity, etc

iii) Reversal (Take Opposite Direction)

eg:

Po: - cars have square wheels...............as a result of this idea, an intelligent suspension system was designed, based on a jockey wheel travelling in front of the main chassis wheel that senses differences in terrain so that the suspension system adjusts itself (Lotus)

Po: - no wars...............resulted in a global firm, which specialised in providing equipment for defence forces, looking outside to other industries to ulitise its core competencies

Po: - you are paid not to work...............make your hobbies into your business

Po: - reverse roles...............mining analysts became agri-business analysts and vice versa when the research departments of Australian Mining and Agriculture were joined

Po: - costs should be reduced by spending more money...............spending more money on fewer vendors gave Dupont leverage to obtain greater discounts

Po: - no money for advertising...............attract the attention of the news media and get free publicity by conducting outlandish activities (Greenpeace)

                                                 ...............use a film called "Crackerjack" to increase youth participation in lawn bowling in Australia

                                                 ...............initially Google relied on word of mouth. Furthermore, Google gained revenue by selling its search results to other search engines (including Yahoo), and from allowing advertising (text only) to be linked to search terms. Ads are limited to a handful at the top of the page and advertisers bid for the best position

Po: - the best job in the world............... a global competition offering $150,000 for working on the Great Barrier Reef for six months, writing a daily blog and feeding fish. Recruitment was driven through online job sites and display ads with a web site address that featured images of the region.

"...Within 56 days, the web site had clocked more than 6.8 million hits. The campaign attracted 43,600 new stories (on and offline) around the world and Tourism Queensland estimates that for its budget of $2.5 million, it received more than $330 million in editorial coverage..."

Fiona Carruthers, 2009

A great example of unpaid, positive publicity.

Po: - made good eyes bad.......some optometrist develop artificial eyes, which are distortions, etc, for use in theatres and movies, eg abnormal eyes for monsters

Po: - reverse traditional way of filleting fish..........traditional method was to pull the meat from the bone; this was changed to pulling the bones from the meat and is now standard practice

Po: - both parties in a legal dispute use the same lawyer...............in a divorce case both parties used the same lawyer in the hope of achieving a fair decision quicker and cheaper

Po: - sporting events are entertainment (TV).............Peter Ueberroth made the LA Olympic Games (1984) the first profitable ($225 million) Games in modern times by concentrating on selling TV rights, ie the big money came from TV. Previously, it was thought that television coverage undermined stadium attendance figures. In fact, the stadia audiences are now required to make the event look good for TV and now every country wants to host the Olympic Games!!!!! (NB Montreal lost $US1 billion in hosting the Olympic Games in 1976, and the 1980 Games held in Moscow had a different accounting system in those days!!!!!!)

NB Peter Ueberroth attended a talk by Edward deBono on lateral thinking techniques in 1975

........Bernie Ecclestone realised that the real money for Formula One races lay in TV rights, and since 1982 every race has been televised. This has created a reliable source of income for the racing teams who could now guarantee their sponsors a large television audience. By the 1990s, Formula One races were drawing an audience of 200 million; it is now the third most-watched sport worldwide, after the Olympic Games and the soccer World Cup

.........sports such as cricket, rugby (union and league), tennis, golf, etc are experimenting with the shortened version of their games to make it more entertaining. Two sports in particular have shown success with this approach, ie cricket and rugby union. For cricket, the traditional game is a 5-day test. Several decades ago a 1-day contest was introduced; included playing at night time under lights. The 1-day Cricket World Cup (2015) drew more than 1 m. spectators and around 100,000 attended the final between Australia and New Zealand at the MCG in March 2015. The one day game's rationale, ie 50 overs per side in one day, so that there was a winner and to make the game more entertaining. On the other hand, a one-day game takes too much time for some people. Thus the entrance of T20, eg Indian Premier League and Australia's Big Bash League (BBL), where each team has 20 overs starting in the late afternoon and finishing in the evening. In 2014-15 season, the average Australian audience was near 1 m. for each game on TV; the final in late January 2015 was viewed by nearly 1.5 m..Also, the total games attendance increased with around 0.85 m. - this number was once thought impossible for a domestic competition. Furthermore, around 25% of the crowd at these games are children compared with around 10% at 5-day tests; with the T20 extending the careers of successful cricketers who otherwise would have had to retire from the game. For rugby union, the traditional game is 15 a-side played in 2 halves of 40 minutes; the shortened version is 7 a-side and 2 halves of 15 minute, eg Rugby Sevens. This shortened version is now part of the Olympics for both men and women, ie Rio Olympics in 2016. Also, there is a Sevens World Series held in cities around the world the several decades. The level of professionalism in Rugby Sevens gives young players the chance to make their mark. More recently there is a further adaption to the Rugby Sevens called Viva Sevens which is a non-contact form and appeals to older rugby players, women and children. Other sports like tennis, golf, rugby league, etc our experimenting with shortened versions of their traditional games, eg rugby league 9s.

Po: - no funds are available for new school buildings...............have 2 shifts of students per school day so that the buildings are used more intensively

Po: - cars have engines on the roof...............this would result in easy access for maintenance; decrease risks of engine damage from collisions; equal weight distribution on both axles; more space in car; more airflow for cooling; trouble with transmission; higher centre of gravity (more unstable). On the other hand some disadvantages that would need to be handled include trouble with transmission; higher centre of gravity (more unstable). This leads in turn to the idea of situating the engine centrally underneath the passenger.

Po: - fuel discount from any petrol station...............certain supermarkets allow a discount from specific petrol stations if you spend over a certain amount at their store. A competitor encourages buyers to bring any recent fuel receipt to their store and will give them the equivalent discount on any purchase

Po: - target passengers who book directly with airlines...............Flight Centre (FCM) decided to target the 25% of passengers who book directly with airlines rather than compete with the 4,000 Australian travel agents who control 75% of the retail travel business. This firm has grown at more than 20% per year

Po: - strong unions increase competitiveness and profitability...............strong unions (including representation by law in management ? Germany, - and on Boards - Sweden) have not restricted the prosperity of Sweden and Germany

Po: - use computers to reduce costs...............initially computers were used to increase processing power and speed. Furthermore, access to the Internet was restricted by the cost of computers. In Brazil, a group of computer scientists was hired to construct a cheap computer, ie around $ US300 retail per unit. It was developed in 2 months

Po: - wireless Internet access...............usual access to the Internet requires a modem and expensive copper phone lines. The wireless technology developed in India eliminated the modem and phone lines; it is faster and cheaper than the traditional method of accessing the Internet

Po: - everybody has access to the Internet...............the internet and computers are too expensive for the vast majority of people in the developing world. The development of a portable, hand-held device (less than $US 200) called the Simputer with Multiple connectivity options based on free Linux software is making internet and computers accessible to most people

Po: - racism is a white person's problem...............this led to non-Indigenous people realising the need to change their mindset so that they see themselves as part of the problem rather than just part of the solution. This and the concept of the need to "walk in the shoes of others" to get an understanding and appreciation of others' viewpoints, lifestyles, beliefs, values, etc, resulted in the introduction of a strategic cultural awareness programme for Australian schools whose student population is predominantly non-Indigenous. Around 20 schools have been involved in the programme which includes

- an interactive workshop that puts teenage students in the "shoes of Indigenous people" for one day. After assigning them into tribal groups and explaining how Indigenous communities survived for over 50,000 years, the students are asked to role-play the traditional society. Then they are exposed to what has happened since European arrival.

- it also offers a follow-up session to reinforce the learning from the workshop

- accompanied by the introduction of an "Indigenous Elder-in-Residence" concept for the school. In one school, the elder-in-residence is an author whose book has been included in the syllabus and given as an annual award for students who most embody the values of Indigenous people, ie "caring, sharing and respecting our land, our people and our environment".

Po: - lead the customer...........Sony's approach is to lead the customer with new products rather than ask them what kinds of products they want, as customers do not know what is technically possible. An example of this is the Walkman which did not take-off until its high-quality stereo sound combined with the privacy provided via its headphones was demonstrated

Po: - study unsuccessful change attempts in organisations........this resulted in the development of a framework by John Kotter to help organisations handle change by understanding the pitfalls involved in changing organisations

Po: - sex workers run the HIV programs themselves...................in India, a Delhi-based public health scientist (Smarajit Jana) organised a project in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) that involved sex workers recognising that they are selling a service and forming a collective to ensure condom use. Rural poverty forces millions of Indian men to migrate to urban centres in search of a livelihood; there they visit brothels, get infected with the AIDS virus and take it back to their wives in the villages. After South Africa, India has the second-largest number of HIV cases in the world, ie at least 5 million. But India is too poor and health infrastructure is too weak to permit reliance on drugs. Only if prostitutes cease to acquire and transmit the virus can the epidemic be contained. Initially the project approached individual sex workers. Most were reluctant to insist on condom use as customers would go elsewhere. Unlike AIDS, starvation posed an immediate threat and the program seemed doomed. Treating AIDS as an occupational hazard resulted in the solution: a workers' cooperative. There are now 60,000 members pledged to the condom use. The collective offers bank loans, schooling for children, literacy training for adults, reproductive healthcare and cheap condoms. This has led to the virtual elimination of trafficking in women to brothels; additionally, it has kept the HIV prevalence rate down to 5% (whereas neighbouring areas without the cooperative have a prevalence rate of around 60%). Furthermore, other sexually transmitted diseases are down to 1%.

Po: - use youth to mentor elders................Jack Welch (ex CEO of GE) used young computer specialists to train and mentor his senior managers in the use of Internet, ie reverse mentoring

Po: - India outsourcing to Western firms.........the traditional pattern is for Western firms to outsource activities to India. Sunil Mittal (CEO of India's leading wireless telecommunication company, Bharti Tele-Ventures) has outsourced its entire phone operations to Western firms like Sweden's Ericsson, Germany's Siemens, Finland's Nokia and American's IBM. This has resulted in Bharti Tele-Ventures remaining India's number 1 mobile provider.

Po: - every member of staff is an individual...............many HR professionals look at the management of human resources as a procedural thing and a matter of achieving maximum efficiency in the management of people. This results in many forms, policies, procedures and rules. On the other hand, Gadens law firm, for example, treats each staff member as a complete individual who needs to be managed as an individual. This means that there are few rules, etc; with considerable emphasis on individuals taking responsibility to manage themselves and their career development. In some ways this approach is more challenging than setting rules that everyone has to follow

Po: - making a bad reference good................a senior manager lost his job. When he applied for another job, the selection committee wanted to contact his previous employer. Knowing that he would not get a favourable response, he advised the committee about this. Some members of the selection committee made contact with his previous boss and his predictions about what his previous boss would say were accurate. Despite this, he was offered the job (NB there were around 140 applicants for the position)

Po: - thinking inside the box...............normal creative thinking is associated with "thinking outside the box". By reversing the traditional creative thinking approach and thinking about existing products rather than the customer, 5 useful techniques were developed (subtraction, multiplication, division, task unification and attribute dependency). Some products developed using these techniques include Gillettte's double bladed razor, the defrosting filament in an automobile windscreen was enhanced to additionally be the radio antenna, suitcases with wheels, sun-sensitive eye glasses, etc

Po: - pay for the privilege to live like a local...............on Lord Howe Island, visitors pay luxury hotel rates to live like the locals, ie no-frills vacation.

Po: - measure luxury by environmental rather than financial credentials....................environmental credentials are redefining luxury as consumers prefer to buy environmentally-friendly products. An example is La Prairie's launch of its advanced marine biology cream ($260): arguably one of the world's most prestigious and traditional skin care companies went into partnership with the not-for-profit Ocean Future Society (run by environmental activist, Celine Cousteau, a relative of the famous underwater explorer Jacques Cousteau). Even though Celine is not a celebrity or a conventional beauty, La Prairie is able to capitalize on the Cousteau name and the Society gains access to La Prairie's vast worldwide publicity machine to promote the marine conservation work plus receives royalties on product sales

Po: - don't have a core business.........................Richard Branson's group of companies, under the Virgin brand, have diversified into a range of business activities that includes airlines, trains, tourism (holidays, leisure etc), communications (including mobile phones and Internet) and media (including music, television, radio and cable), Internet, financial services, health-care, space travel, renewable energy, environment, etc.. The criteria applied prior to investing in a new industry include understanding the challenges of the particular industry, assessing whether the industry needs to be turned on its head and ascertaining if there is a need for a consumer champion. In fact, Virgin's focus is on "branded venture capital", with each company being self-contained like the Japanese "keiretsu" which are held together by cross-shareholding and governed by a strong group of professional managers. The bonding power between the different groups is the Virgin brand whose mission is to provide superior customer service. The protection of the brand's reputation is paramount

Po: - give China what it wants................the Chinese are very keen to secure their long-term supply of natural resources, such as coal, iron ore, etc because of development needs. Most resource-base firms supplying China are only willing to give limited time contracts and discourage investment in equity and/or infrastructure. On the other hand, one Australian (Clive Palmer), who lived in China in his youth, has given the Chinese long-term contracts and encourages investment in equity and infrastructure in Australia (estimated to be more than $10 billion; this includes buying minerals upfront). This has resulted in Clive Palmer becoming one of Australia's wealthiest men in less than 5 years and becoming a politician when he won a place in Australian Federal parliament (2013).

Po: - creativity involves less...................luxury good supplier LVMH Parfums Givenchy works on the concept that the more people involved in the creative process, the more you end up with a lowest common denominator and a product designed by a committee, ie a bland product. Furthermore, they claim that market research has limited value for luxury goods as market research is about consensus, not creativity.

They start with the people, not strategy nor organisational structure, ie

"...recruit people with specific strengths or profiles and then they change the organisation to make it fit with these people..."

Alain Lorenzo as quoted by Marguerite Winter, 2010

They encourage minimal creative interference, ie keep the number of people involved to a minimum. The organisation is a federation of independent companies as opposed to more integrated groups like Proctor and Gamble or L'Oreal.

The risk of this approach is that they end up with something original and creative but not commercial.

Furthermore, they stress the idea of longevity (owing to their products' differences and originality) targeting a "select" customer base, rather than a quick sales hype with mass appeal that becomes a short-term fad.

In testing the market, they use "trial by error" tactic, ie they launch a new product to a handful of countries to test the market reaction. This allows time to fine-tune things before going global and creates demand in countries not selected for the trial, ie tease them.

Po: - work on people's strengths...................normally to help staff performance we give training that focuses on improving their weaknesses. Yet people like to work on their strengths and perform best this way. In fact many successful organisations work on people's strengths and match staff up who have complementary skills, ie one person's strengths are matched or paired with another's weaknesses, etc. Furthermore, some powerful techniques, like Appreciative Inquiry, Positive Psychology, etc, focus on the strengths of an organisation/individual rather than areas that are seen as negatives.

Po: - sell to the poor...............traditionally western firms focus their selling on the top-income earners. On the other hand, it is estimated that there are 4 billion poor people world-wide who spend around $US 5 trillion annually; imagine if this group "spent a little more"!!!! As a result of this analysis, firms like Phillips in India increased its focus on selling to the poor owing to the sheer numbers of potential customers. It uses India to test products aimed at the poor, eg

- a hand-cranked radio ($5 each) which sold 900,000 units;

- a low-pollution wood-burning stove as 1.6 million people die each year from cooking fires

- out-fitted a van with simple medical disgnostic equipment that travels to the rural villagers. The data is sent via satellite to hospitals in the city where specialists make the diagnosis, etc. Thus the rural villagers can get top-tier medical service without leaving the village

(NB This is additional to the computer programs that are developed in India for products like TV, DVD players, cell phones, coffee-makers, etc)

Po: - using the Internet to create aspiration and exclusivity for luxury brands.......................at first glance, it would appear that Internet and social media would work against luxury brands as they aim for aspiration and exclusivity while social media aims for the mass market. But luxury brands like Burberry, Tiffany & Co. Jimmy Choo & OrotonGroup are including social media as a key plank in their strategy to engage with consumers, ie as a way to create

- authentic and real-time dialogues and conversations with potential customers, especially in emerging markets like China and Brazil whose target citizens are technology-savy and want to display their wealth

- elite communities for their brands on the Internet

- opportunities to share an image/photo of yourself with the brand

Burberry claims (Carrie Lafrenz, 2012) it had a 21% increase in last quarter sales revenue in 2011 after implementing a social media strategy. According to CEO Angela Ahrendts, social media helped drive customer engagement, enhance retail disciplines and improved operational effectiveness while strengthening brand momentum. Burberry is the world's most successful fashion brand on social media networks, with 11.1 million Facebook fans, 825,000+ Twitter followers and 11.8 million YouTube viewings.

Po: - travel to Pacific Islands to lose weight...............a consultant/trainer who regularly travels to work in the Pacific Islands was worried about putting on weight as Islanders have large appetites and the venues he works at supply ample servings of food. He found that by reducing his number of meals from 3 to 2 per day, he lost weight!!!!!!

Po: - restricting access increases numbers...............people seeing popular exhibitions at galleries/ museums, etc often have to wait hours in queues and/or view a particular artifact/painting, etc across a group several deep. To handle this, museums/galleries, etc are selling tickets that allow entry on specific days and times so that a finite number of visitors is present at any one time. This is providing certainty for visitors to the establishment, ie no queues, and able to view items with a minimal number of other visitors. It helps with crowd control and allows for a better experience for the visitor, ie no queues, etc. As most of these timed tickets are purchased online, it is also providing useful information for marketing

Po: - trade, not aid, to handle poverty...............in a couple of decades China has gone from a Maoist backwater to the world's second-largest, fastest-growing major economy. China's policies, like the "Great Leap Forward" (1950s) and "Cultural Revolution" (late 1960s & early 70s), caused years of internal economic stagnation. China's rapid economic development did not start until the late 1970's when Deng Xiaoping returned to political power after Mao Zeding's death (1976). Deng and his allies introduced economic reforms, like

- market incentives (first in agriculture and then industry) that gave firms greater authority to make own production decisions, prices to reflect supply and demand conditions (rather than being determined by the government) and reduced state regulation in the economy. As a result, agricultural productivity skyrocketed and made labour available for industrial development. Also, privatisation started in the mid-1990s;

- integration with the international community by encouraging international trade (including foreign investment and technology). As a result, China has established successful trading relationships with most countries, especially the developed countries, and is now the world's 2nd largest economy (based on GDP) after USA;

- revitalising higher education

plus removing "leftist" supporters from positions of power, like the pro-Cultural Revolution leadership (Gang of 4)

The Chinese government approach shifted focus from class struggle to economic modernisation. They believed that significant economic growth was achievable without endangering political control.

In a couple of decades China has gone from a Maoist backwater to the world's second-largest, fastest-growing major economy. Over 3 decades, it is estimated that around 500 million Chinese have been "pulled out of poverty" by this approach, ie

"...Never before have so many people been lifted out of poverty over such a brief period of time..."

Laurence Chandy as quoted by Ambrose Evans- Pritchard, 2014

Yet most other developing countries that rely on aid (multi- or bi-lateral) as a basis for lifting people out of poverty do not share the success of China. Furthermore, it has been claimed (Daron Acemoglu et al, 2012) that less than 20% of aid reaches the target audience, ie

"...There are dozens of ongoing fraud investigations into charges of UN and local officials siphoning off aid money. But most of the waste resulting from foreign aid is not fraud, just incompetence or even worse: simply business as usual for aid organisations......despite this unflattering track record of development aid, foreign aid is one of the most popular policies that Western governments, international organisations, such as the United Nations, and NGOs of different ilk recommend as a way of combating poverty around the world. And of course, the cycle of the failure of foreign aid repeats itself over and over again. The idea that rich Western countries should provide large amounts of development aid in order to solve the problems of poverty in sub-Sahara Africa, Caribbean, Central America and Southeast Asia is based on an incorrect understanding of what causes poverty..."

Daron Acemoglu et al, 2012

Po: - the more money one accumulates, the less one needs to pay for things...............even though wealthy customers have the money to pay for experiences, luxury brands are going to great lengths to keep customers loyal. They are offering their loyal customers unique, upmarket, free experiences like those offered by Audi's Lifestyle Experience (to become a member you need to buy a car worth over $150,000). The free experiences include sailing masterclass with London gold-medal-winning Olympian Michael Page, a catered extravaganza at Sydney Theatre Company in the presence of actor Richard Roxburgh, etc. The aim of the exercise is to encourage customer loyalty and ensure future purchasing decisions are swayed in the brand's favour

"...As someone with money, you enter a club which can be achieved through purchasing your luxury cars, timepieces, fine jewellery, fashion or staying at a luxury hotel. You are then invited to more events, provided with many delightful experiences, provided with 'thank you' products and then you meet other people at these events, you share things in common. And this extension of money, experience, relationship continues..."

Melinda O'Rourke as quoted by Katarina Kroslakova, 2014

Po: - lower prices to make more money ..................................the traditional view is that by lowering prices, margins fall and result in less profit per item sold; to counter this loss of profit, there must be a significant increase in sales. Successful firms, like Walmart, Amazon, Uber, etc have taken a contrary view, ie cheaper prices increases customer numbers and loyalty. This strategy in the long term returns more total profit and cash flow to the firm, especially if demand is highly elastic, ie the lower the price, the demand increases dramatically. This also involves delivering the highest possible value to customers by selling at the lowest possible prices. Uber has modified this concept to its advantage by increasing driver utilisation, ie the number of rides per hour for a driver.  The aim was to lower the price for the passengers while increase earnings for the driver and better cash flow for Uber. At the same time, the lower fares would lead to more demand and even higher utilisation. Under "UberPool", Uber has a single driver pick up, en route, several passengers who are heading in the same direction, ie ride sharing with each driver averaging more than a single passenger per trip. By doing this everyone wins, ie driver makes more money, passengers pay lower fares and Uber increases turnover.

                                                            .................................the virtuous double loop strategy used by Woolworths ( Australia) when Roger Corbett was CEO, ie

"...reinvesting cost savings and productivity gains into reducing grocery prices to drive volume and sales. This fuelled almost a decade of double digit profit growth for Woollies starting in 2000..."

Simon Evans et al, 2015

Po: - taxis are buses ................................. Under "UberPool", a single car is like a bus, ie collecting and dropping passengers who travel in the same direction, eg ride-sharing (each driver averaging more than a single passenger per trip). This has resulted in behavioural changes with many passengers travelling the same route regularly maybe 5 days a week. By doing this everyone wins, ie the driver makes more money, passengers pay lower fares and Uber increases turnover.

Po: - there is no stability without volatility ...................................................... the best indicator of the country's future stability is not past stability but moderate volatility in the relatively recent past . Dictatorships, like Saudi Arabia and Syria, that lack volatility face a greater risk of chaos than countries like Italy, which has been in a state of continual political turmoil since World War II . This has led to the theory of fragility (Nassim Nicolas Taleb et al). Need to study how systems can handle disorder, ie how fragile they are. Some systems can sustain an extraordinary amount of stress , while others fall apart at the onset of slightest trouble. Things that are fragile do not like variability, volatility, stress, chaos and random events which cause them to either gain little or suffer. Things that are fragile respond to shock in a non-linear fashion, eg the harm from a 10 m fall is no way equal to 10 times the harm from a 1 m fall; the fall in the price of oil of $30 is much more than twice as harmful for oil producing countries as a $15 drop. This theory is applicable to organisations and is linked to creating the sense of urgency required in effective change management. There are 5 principal sources of fragility, ie
i) centralised controlling system , eg a dominating corporate headquarters, centralised decision-making, etc that is aimed to improve the efficiency and stability, etc. On the other hand, centralisation contributes to fragility even though it gives the appearance of reducing deviations from the normal. It magnifies the consequences if these deviations occur as it concentrates them all in other more severe episodes, which are disproportionately more harmful than a cumulative small variations; centralisation decreases local risks but at the price of increasing systematic risks; there is an inability to handle diversity that adds to the fragility, ie those that suppress differing than those at encouraging divergent views; it is best not to integrate but rather tolerate and encourage differing views, ie encourage autonomous units)
ii) lack of diversity, ie products/services, eg need to be aware of reliance on single/few products/services, even though they provide a competitive advantage; specialisation makes an organisation more vulnerable to the impact of random events, ie the loss of a single source of income can have a dramatic impact
iii) excessive debt and leverage, eg have borrowed too much money; debt is perhaps the single most critical source of fragility
iv) lack of variability, eg need to be careful of groupthink; need to encourage divergent views; management should not select replacements who are clones of themselves; disperse decision-making power as widely as possible
v) no history of surviving past shocks, eg  need to have survived, and recovered from, a worse case scenario, ie experience chaos without disintegrating, in the recent past; this experience can reveal hidden strengths and involve gaining from disorder, so that the shocks are educational and allowing the organisation to experience growth; otherwise become too complacent, risk averse , etc .

"...the idea is analogous to child rearing: parents want to protect their children from truly serious shocks that they might not survive but should not want to shelter them from the challenges of life that make them tougher..."
Nassim Nicolas Taleb et al, 2015

Po: - pharmacists become doctors ..................................................... in Australia, health is the second biggest area of government spending after welfare . The Pharmacy Guild of Australia (pharmacists' political lobby group) is keen to expand its role in health care. Recently they have successfully administrated influenza vaccine at no cost to the government; with patients paying about $25 for the service and vaccine; this trial has been extended to whooping cough and measles injections for adults. Pharmacists are under financial pressure with
- the big selling brand name drugs, such as Lipitor (anti-cholesterol), being replaced by cheaper generic medicine
- government reforms to reduce the cost of subsidised generic medicines.
- the rise of discount pharmacy companies, like Chemist Warehouse, which offer discounts on prescription medicines (Jessica Gardner & Joanna Heath, 2015)
It is estimated the pharmacists' net annual profit will fall by $90,000. That is why they want to move up the healthcare value chain. On the other hand, the doctors (using their political lobby group, AMA) are not in favour of pharmacists broadening their responsibility and thus eroding doctors' income; the doctors argue that this expansion of  pharmacists' roles jeopardises patient safety.

 

Po: - agender............................................unisex fashions that are free of any gender definition, ie wear whatever you want. This is sometimes called androgny (both male and female characteristics). garments have neither male or female focus eg denim jeans, T-shirts,b> etc

Po: - staff are owners.........................traditionally staff do not own equity in the firm they work for; at best they are minority shareholders. On the other hand, there are productivity benefits from having staff as owner of a company, including the ability to plan long-term, creates staff alignment and motivation, etc. Some of the reasons for staff ownership include owners wanting to exit the business and sell the business to their staff, changing the master-servant relationship between owners/bosses and staff, reduces the need to bring in outside investors who may have different agendas for the firm's future (eg short-term capital gain on their investment), reduces the need to borrow money, etc. But issues that may need addressing include what happens to the shares when a staff member leaves the firm, valuing the firm when staff are purchasing/selling equity, financing staff equity purchases, criteria of allocating shares to different staff members like length of employment with the firm, seniority, etc, the firm's profit and dividend distribution in boom-bust cycles (especially in down cycles), management decisions around allocation of resources to items like research and development, salaries, etc.

Po: - innovation with constraints................................. people are given a space to innovate but have a constraint like time or money or people, etc. These type of constraints put additional pressure on people to think differently about the problem; more likely to come up with a creative solution. Atlassian (an Australian computer software company that was floated on US stock exchange for around US$ 5 b. in late 2015), conducts an in-house programming competition (hackathon) with a time constraint, ie 24 hours to produce something. It is used to create new products, improve existing products, improve processes.
"...if you got unlimited time, budget and manpower...... companies that have that rarely produce good things..."

Mike Cannon-Brooks as quoted by Paul Smith, 2014a

Po: - furniture buyers assemble their own products.............................. buyers pick up furniture components in a flatpack from a large warehouse and assemble the products themselves in their home. This is what IKEA introduced in the 1960s

Po: - airlines rent engines.................................airlines don't buy engines for their airplanes but pay for every hour an engine runs. This is how Rolls-Royce transformed itself from a money-losing British manufacturer into a service firm that is now one of the dominant providers of larger jet engines

Po: - voice calls are free worldwide..............................in 2003 Skype launched a service that allowed free voice calling via the Internet. In 5 years Skype had acquired 400m registered users who collectively have made 100 b free calls

Po: - car manufacturers don't sell cars............... in 2008, Daimler launched car2go which had a fleet of vehicles that allowed users to pick up and drop off cars anywhere in the German city of Ulm; users pay by the minute used

Po: - individuals borrow money from each other................................ in 2005, UK-based Zopa launched a peer-to-peer lending platform on the Internet that bypass the banks as lenders

Po: - every villager has access to a phone........................................Grameenphone in partnership with micro-finance institution Grameen bank aimed to achieve this in Bangladesh, which had one of the world's lowest tele-density rates. In 2010, Grameenphone was one of Bangladesh's largest taxpayers.

Po: - no sales department.......................................... traditionally firms have sales as an important part of marketing. In the digital age, software firms, like Atlassian and Slack, do not have sales departments. They rely upon word-of-mouth and contacts. They regard research and development as more important. A more traditional firm like Jayco (manufacturers of caravans) has more people in research and development than in sales

Po: - people are their own bosses.........................................this means that people are able to choose how they work, ie flexibility like working from home and/or hours that suit, etc. This has resulted broadening the range of people available to work including mothers, fathers, people in retirement transition, students, elite athletes, etc plus substantial savings in office space and costs, etc.. This approach has increased performance/productivity beyond expectations by encouraging collaborative working relationships where work expectations and guidelines are agreed upon. In some organisations, flexible workers become the most efficient.  For example, Woolworths (an Australian retailer employing around 200,000 staff) has increased productivity and retained employees through flexible work, job redesign and leave arrangements including paid maternity leave, retention strategies, job sharing, etc. This approach is very effective in situations of extra hours needed to handle high demand, such as natural disasters, etc. For example, the Brisbane office of Suncorp (Australian bank with around 16,000 staff) was flooded in 2011, staff working from home were able to handle the high demand from customers and to minimise disruptions. However, legally in some countries, like Australia, the employer is liable for any costs incurred when a home-based worker is injured.

Po: - fashion designer links with glasses supplier........ Alex Perry (fashion designer) links with Specsavers (eyewear suppliers) to design and sell fashionable, affordable glasses. This association has increased his female customer base by around 50% as they sold 1.2 m. pairs of glasses. He is doing a similar thing with branded hotels.

Po: - open oysters like popping the cork out of the champagne bottle....................................traditionally opening an oyster, ie shucking, is difficult.  By shaving a bit of calcium carbonate off the side of the shell and then sealing the cavity with wax to keep juices in and the oyster alive has resulted in a streamlined, easy-to -open oyster.  Buyers can simply remove the wax, insert a good knife into the cavity to crack open the oyster ready for eating as nature intended.  An added benefit is that the wax seal can be branded to identify where the oyster came from. (Kendall Hill, 2016)

Po: stop research and analyse clinical data..........................................................................it has been claimed that there would be a better return from analysing current clinical data than from continuing research. Money should be spent on synthesising, summarising and disseminating the medical knowledge we already have so that health professionals can help their patients make properly informed treatment choices

Po: - don't target traditional industry audience........................Cirque du Soleil (non-traditional circus business starting in Canada). This organisation successfully modified the traditional elements of the circus business, eg
- it eliminated costly elements like animals (maintenance, animal rights issues, etc) and star performers
- it added other elements like theme, artistic atmosphere & refined music
- it combines elements from circus, theatre and opera, ie it broadened its appeal to theatre-goers and other adults seeking sophisticated entertainment rather than targeting the traditional circus audience of families
Based on the above, it was able to substantially raise ticket prices.

iv) Exaggeration (Directly Related to Measurements and Dimensions)

Po: - policeman has many eyes.......................the community become the eyes for the police. This resulted in the establishment of Neighbourhood Watch and Crime Stoppers where people in the communties are the "eyes and hears" for the police. They help the police stop and solve crimes in communities by providing information. This includes recording and providing video footage from home security cameras.

Po: - play test cricket like one-day matches.........Australian cricketers were playing test cricket like one-day players and breaking records, ie won 21 one day internationals, 17 test matches and 5 test series in one year

Po: - watches are fashion statements........Swatch changed the concept of watches from a time piece to a thing of fashion, and aided the recovery of the Swiss watch industry after the decimation of the industry by the quartz movement technology in 1960s

Po: - eliminate the engineering department........better integration and link up between departments that saved millions of dollars (Dupont)

Po: - electricity as a contraceptive............................the introduction of electricity into villages on the Indian subcontinent resulted in a lowering of the birthrate as most adults went to bed later than normal, ie tired, and to sleep.

Po: - cable TV empowers females......................on the Indian subcontinent, women who recently accessed cable TV were significantly less willing to tolerate wife-beating, less likely to admit to having a son preference and more likely to exercise personal autonomy. These rural Indian women saw cosmopolitan images on their TV sets with women dressing as they please, handing their own money, and being treated as neither property nor baby-making machines. Furthermore, families with cable TV had a lower birthrate than families without TV and kept their daughters at school longer. A lower birthrate generally means more autonomy for women and fewer health risks.

Po: - one-of-a kind to many-of-a-kind.........................mechanical office duplicating initially received a lot of resistance as it upset long-established office patterns, such as the use of the typewriter with carbon paper copies, and the concept of copying had a negative connotation, ie counterfeit reproductions of originals in the art world. Only in the 20th century did the idea of copying take on a more positive connotation like "plenty" or "abundance"...he mimeograph first became popular at the start of the 20th century; this was followed by the photostat (owing to high costs, its use was generally limited to drawings of architects and engineers, and copying legal documents); later offset printing appeared in the 1930s. These were regarded as duplicators rather than copiers. Then in 1950s machines began quickly producing many copies without the use of a master page and at a cost of a few cents per page. All these early machines had serious and frustrating defects, like using special treated paper, until xerography ("dry writing", ie dry, good-quality permanent, cheap copies of ordinary paper produced quickly and with a minimum of trouble). .
Starting in 1959, Xerox produced its first automatic xerographic office machine and by 1966 had sold 0.5 b; its share price showed a similar rise, ie
"...Anyone who brought shares towards the end of 1959 and held them until early 1967 would have found his holdings worth around 66 times its original price..."

John Brooks, 1969

Po: - applying private sector concepts and skills to social policy.........................social impact bonds link private capital with social outcomes, ie private investors share in the risks and rewards of social service programs underpinned by government contracts. This will reduce financial pressure on areas like social housing, keeping children out of foster care (in New South Wales, Australia, this is expected to save more than A$100 m. over the next 15 years as fewer carers will be required as the program aims to reunite families), etc. 

"...social impact bonds subject charities to the scrutiny of the capital markets because of the terms and focus on achieving specific social outcomes, and the investor returns improve as the outcomes do. Social bonds and other forms of social impact investing have the potential to benefit government and taxpayer by reducing costs and improving social policy outcomes..."

James Eyers, 2015

Business people bring a set of skills that can be very useful in developing public policy; they are problem solvers who understand trends and are willing to take opportunities, after the appropriate research (like looking at the detail, thinking through the options and coming up with the best evidence-based approach), that will work in the communities

 

v) Distortion (Distort "Normal" Things ? Time Sequence and Relationships)

Po: - you die before you die...........living benefits re insurance, ie if you have a terminal illness you can benefit from 75% of the insurance money before you die (Prudential Insurance)

Po: - use tax office to handle fraud......inform tax office that a certain person, who has "stolen" some money, is living beyond their taxable income, ie means. They will chase up the person

Po: - school uniforms are status symbols...........re-introduction of school uniforms at a high school as dress for prefects only; soon other students wanted to wear the uniform

Po: - medicine as status symbol...........to handle scurvy, Captain Cook made sauerkraut (pickled cabbage) compulsory at the officers' table; soon the crew wanted the same as the officers

Po: - use filter trap to treat allergies..........a filter designed to trap allergenic particles for scientific research that are inhaled through the nose is now used to treat the allergy, ie the filter traps the particles but does not impede airflow through the nose

Po: - equipment that can be continuously upgraded.......GE in the medical business built a CT scanner that could handle upgrades (hardware and software) for a fraction of the price of buying new equipment. This kept GE at the top of the industry for around 20 years

Po: - the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.......the whole system design means optimising the entire system, not just the components. By breaking the whole system into parts, the synergies and integration of the whole is lost. Keeping the system whole can result in systematically combining a series of successive improvements or savings. This has the effect of compounding benefits/savings through the whole system and multiplying them. Refrigerators today can save around 98-99% of the energy used by refrigerators in 1972. These massive advances in refrigerator efficiency have come through whole system design.

Po: - treat fashion garments like perishables.........Amancio Ortega, who operates the third largest fashion retailing empire in the world (Inditex), runs his business as if it is selling perishables, ie new stock arrives in store twice a week, as opposed to his competitors offering 4 collections per year. Furthermore, if a garment is not selling, it will not last more than a week in the store. This helps explain why the average customer visits his stores (Zara) around 17 times per year, as opposed to the average number of 4 customers visits in fashion retailing. Furthermore, his company has the ability to take a design from a sketchbook to the store in 15 days. This has resulted in 80 percent of his stock being sold at full price, compared with an industry average of 60 percent. This means that he nets, after tax, 10% of sales turnover compared with his average competitor's 6.4%

Po: - advertising is a pointless distraction...............Amancio Ortega prefers to use prime retail sites, in-store imagery and carefully controlled window displays to tempt customers. The company spends less than 0.3% of revenue on advertising, compared with an average of 3.5% of revenue in other fashion houses

Po: - books are data...............Google has digitised & datafied millions of books so that the words, etc can processed by computers and analysed by algorithms. Since the mid-15th century the book industry has been based on the assumption that humans read, rather than on analysis of datafied text. In 2004 Google, whose focus is on "users' clicks" rather than access to publishers' titles, decided to digitalise, etc every book (around 130 million since the start of the printing press) they could get hold of and allow the public free access to books through the Internet. It linked up with some of the world's top libraries and developed scanning machines that could turn pages so that scanning millions of books was viable. This "datafied" of the books by using optical-character-recognition software that could take a digital image and recognise the letters, words, sentences and paragraphs on it, ie datafied text - rather than producing a digitised picture of a page - so that it was able to be processed by computers and analysed by algorithms. The text was indexable and searchable. Thus the data that can be used by humans for reading can be used by machines for analysis. Some interesting flow-ons include

i) datafication has made plagiarism easier to discover

ii) culturomics (a new academic discipline, ie computational lexicology that tries to understand human behaviour and cultural trends through qualitative analysis of texts. One finding is that around 50%f of English words that appear in books are not included in the dictionaries).

iii) using the datafied text from a textbooks scanning project to improve its machine-translation service, ie

"...It can treat translation as a giant math problem, with the computer figuring out probabilities to determine what were their substitutes for another between languages..."

Victor Mayer-Schonberger et al 2013

vi) Wishful Thinking (Wouldn't it be Nice)

eg:

Po: - riverside polluting factories were downstream of themselves....outlet pipes upstream of inlet pipes so that the factory is the first to get a sample of its pollution and is keen to clean the pollution up

Po: - cars should limit their own parking...........................leave car headlights on when parking so that the longer the car is parked the more likely the car's battery will become "flat".

Po: - make public secret information.........a journalist infiltrated the Ku Klux Klan and made its secrets into a children's game. This trivialised the Klan and its secrets, and the Klan has never recovered its former glory

Po: - if nature creates no waste, we should do the same....a team at Xerox pioneered design innovations that resulted in a product with only around 200 parts, compared with its predecessor having 2,000. Furthermore, the product could be disassembled easily as clips and screws held it together; around 92% of the parts could be re-manufactured and 96% recycled

Po: - give away free samples of products.....instead of signing with distributors and spending money on advertising, id Software (computer gaming) gave part of its product (Wolfenstien) to gamers for free on floppy disc, called shareware. If consumers liked it enough, they could purchase the rest. When id launched Doom in 1994, they gave away around 15 million free demo copies, but since then Doom has generated more than $100 million

Po: - stamps never change...........the Post Office in the UK does not put prices on stamps. The stamps just carry an indication of grade, ie first-class, etc. So when a stamp is purchased the prevailing price is paid for the grade of stamp purchased

Po: - prostitutes have good bedside manners.................prostitutes are being taken off the streets and re-trained as care workers for elderly people in Germany as nursing homes are grossly understaffed. Prostitutes make good carers as they have good people skills, are not easily disgusted and have no fear of physical contact.

Po: - create inland seas..................................................seawater handles deforestation and climate by transforming barren deserts into arable land. A canal is dug inland from the ocean, fills with water, attracting fish and molluscs whose biological waste makes the seawater nutrient-rich. The water fills the earth's aquifers and replenishes wetlands, which in turn attracts wildlife. This has been successfully done along the coast of Sonoran (Mexico) and sandy areas of Eritrea

Po: - combining low fares and outstanding service.............Southwest Airlines started in the 1970s as a no-frills airline and has been one of the most successful players in the industry. It has continually increased its profits while competitors have been bankrupted and/or require government assistance to remain in business. From the first day, the airline concentrated on developing the firm's culture - a way of doing things that would sustain its founding values as the years went by, ie

- staff are No. 1 - the way you treat your staff is the way they will treat your customers

- think small to grow big

- save in good times for the bad times

- irreverence is OK

- have fun at work

- take the competition seriously, but not yourself

- think of the company as a service organisation that happens to be in the airline industry

- do whatever it takes

- always practise what you preach

Southwest has understood that employee satisfaction and customer service are linked.

"...they have maintained their culture of customer service by employing people who are right for the business, and by giving them the tools and incentives to do their work well..."

Richard Branson, 2008

Po: - anyone can become the President of USA..................traditionally potential candidates for the U.S. presidency are extremely wealthy and/or have wealthy backers, such as industry/lobby groups, to fund their campaigns to win party (Democratic or Republican) nomination. Barack Obama's campaign (2008) activated young e-communicators who effectively used blogs and social networking sites to generate excitement, encourage people to vote, increase political awareness and raise money (including many "small" contributions from "Moms and Dads" and "poor". They raised around $US 200 million in on-line donations and encouraged many of his supporters to become active campaigners. This use of the Internet formed the basis of his campaign "to come from behind" and win the Democratic nomination from Hillary Clinton (who was the Democratic "machine's" preferred candidate as a high profile, US Senator and wife of a former President). Then he went on to become the first non-white President of USA (2008) and to be re-elected for a second term (2012). Again the use of social media was pivotal. As social media is not expected to change votes, Obama's team focused on encouraging Democrats to vote (in USA, voting is voluntary). They used software (VoteBuilder) to locate and contact likely Democrat voters and then endeavour to persuade them to vote for Obama.

Some statistics comparing Obama's use of social media between the 2 campaigns (2012 v. 2008), ie

- Facebook fans (34 million v. 15+million). This means that he can reach most Americans as on average each person has 100 Facebook contacts;

- Twitter followers (23 million v. 16+million);

- Online money raised ($US 690 million v $US 190 million).

His Republican competitor (Mitt Romney) for the second term was from the more traditional "presidential" background, ie white, male from a wealthy, privileged background who had strong links with the interest groups in the corporate, industry, commerce, religious, etc worlds. By contrast, Obama's background would not traditionally have been considered advantageous in seeking the USA Presidency, ie

- non-white

- having a non-American father, ie Kenyan

- a Moslem grandfather

- a Moslem second name (Hussein)

- early schooling in Indonesia (including attending a Moslem school)

- a step-sister (half Indonesian)

- brother-in-law and niece of Chinese descent

- after divorcing his Kenyan father, his mother raised him as a single parent until she remarried an Indonesian (Moslem) who became his step-father

- cared for by white grandparents when attending high school and university in Hawaii

- his career background is from the community/volunteer arena, not the corporate or military or political establishment.

Po: - civil dis-obedience is more powerful than guns..................Mohandas Gandhi successfully used the concepts of "non-violent, non co-operation, civil resistance/dis-obedience, peaceful protest" (Satyagraha), including "hunger strike" as a last resort, in the struggle to gain independence (Swaraj or Swarajya) from the British "Raj" by the mid 20th century (1947). In the early 20th century, the British Empire was at its military peak when Gandhi started to galvanise a dedicated core of followers who were representatives of the different ethical/racial groups (Hindus, Muslims, Untouchables, Brahmins, Sikhs, Parsis, Christians, Anglo-Indians, Jews, etc) of the 350 million Indians. Under Gandhi's leadership, they successfully used civil dis-obedience to force the British to quit India, ie

"...The spindle in Gandhi's hand became sharper than the sword; the simple white sheet wrapping Gandhi's thin body was an armour-plate which guns from the fleets of the masters of the seas could not pierce; and the goat of Gandhi became stronger than the British Lion..."

Mikhail Noema (Arab poet) as quoted by Rajmohan Gandhi, 2008

His approach laid the foundations for the development of similar concepts like "freedom without violence", "reconciliation after violence", "empowering the weak or disadvantaged", variations of "people power", etc.

Some examples are

- Martin Luther King, Jr with the civil rights movement in 1960s (USA);

- Dalai Lama handling the Chinese communists (Tibet);

- Nelson Mandela ending apartheid in the early 1990s (South Africa);

- Aung San Suu Kyi handling the military junta (Burma);

- Benigno Aquino toppling the Marcos regime in 1980s (Philippines);

- Ibrahim Rugova's struggle with Yugoslavia (Kosovo);

- Eastern Europe bloc countries ending Russian communist domination in late 1980s;

- starting in 2011, the "Arab Spring" challenging and/or removing Moslem dictatorships (Tunisia, Yemen, Egypt, Libya, Bahrain, Syria, etc);

- earth's environment movement, e.g.Greenpeace, starting in the late 20th century, etc

Po: - the finger is mightier than the pen..............................................................with touch screens in computers, tablets, mobile phones, etc the pen and stylus are being replaced by the finger. Unlike pens, fingers don't run out of ink, they are free and one is always available. It is used to take notes on mobile phones/smart phones, highlighting on Kindles, drawing pictures on an iPad, etc. You don't have to worry about losing work recorded (as you might if written on a piece of paper) as digital notes are stored. In many ways it is the return of the finger as it was the first writing instrument which was then followed by chalk, charcoal, quills, pencils, pens, printing press, stylus, biros, fingers (used on  type-writers,  keyboards & touch screens in computers, tablets, mobile phones, etc)

Po: - blinded auditioning of musicians..................traditionally few women were successful in gaining employment in orchestras, especially in areas that were regarded as male domains, like brass instruments. The selection process was dominated by males, ie conductors, music directors and maestros. They held views that resulted in systemic prejudice against women, because they regarded women as not being as strong as men, their lips were different, their lungs were less powerful, their hands were smaller, etc. Blind auditioning involves erecting screens between the musician and judges so that the judges cannot see the musician and the musicians use numbers, not names, for their identification. Thus the judges' decisions are based solely on what they hear and are not influenced by what they see. Since the introduction of blind auditioning, the number of women in top US orchestras has increased fivefold. If during the audition that musician makes any kind of gender-identifiable noise like coughing, sneezing, wearing heels, etc, they are issued with a new number and have another audition. Blind auditioning is a more effective way of handling gender discrimination than the traditional approach of affirmative action programs, etc.

Po: - everybody has right of way.............................traditionally, planners carefully design town centers. Most times this ends up in gridlock as planners have tried to impose order on the various requirements of the vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians, etc. Planners try to balance the needs of freedom of movement, efficient throughput and safety but end up creating complicated systems that please no one. Recently, in The Netherlands, the city planners have taken away traffic lights, pedestrian barriers, the road markings, cycle lines, etc and created a shared space for all users. In other words, self-organizing has taken over from direct bureaucratic control. The result is a continuing good safety record and faster speed of movement. This concept was introduced in more than 100 towns

Po: - employ no staff.......................................traditionally, organisations employ full-time staff. Some consultancy organisations do not employ full-time consultants but have a pool of carefully selected freelance consultants who are available to work on assignments. When clients approach these organisations about particular requirements, they are able to select the most suitable consultants for the project. This means that a consultant organisation is not restricted in its selection of consultants to its own staff; the client gets the most suitable consultants to work on the project and reduces the administrative procedures and costs within the consultancy organisation. Sometimes this is called a virtual organisation.

Po: - staff decided the values......................in late 2003, IBM via the Internet (concept of a 72 hour on-line "value jam") allowed all its staff to have input into developing its values which are

- dedication to every client's success

- innovation that matters (for the company and for the world)

- trust

- personal responsibility in all relationships.

This resulted in staff having ownership and "emotional buy-in" of the values as they were instrumental in choosing them

Po: - everything is free..................this has led to the concept of "freeconomics", ie giving away something free as a proxy to make money some other way, eg Google provides information free but charges for advertising via Ad words (the system is a logging mechanism that counts clicks, add up micro sums that are deducted from clients' accounts each month).

Po: - pornography is innovative..........................the pornography industry has driven the development of micro-payment models and technologies by innovatively developing workable ways to make payment on-line. This industry accounts for 40% of the global download traffic. Some of the innovative payment methods include secure online credits-card payment gateways; third-party payment gateway solutions; affiliate model of Web marketing with different sites promoting others, offering payments for traffic; setting up premium dial-up Internet gateway phone lines to pay for content on a per-view basis; payments via mobile phone accounts.

Po: - connecting one customer to another.................connecting one customer to another is what PayPal (system of payment), Amazon (book seller), etc did. In contrast, the preferred decision-masking approach to marketing of traditional players, like Amex, Barnes & Noble, etc, was top-down and centralized and they could not see the advantage of growing by connecting one customer to another.

Po: - we sell intellectual capital, not time.................... traditionally the professional business model (such as legal, consultant, marketing, accountants, advertising, etc) is based on billable hours, ie charging for time spent and tracking inputs (which has led to photocopying and faxing becoming profit centers!!!!!!!) This was reinforced by the entrenched partnership approach and resultant time-related compensation concepts. This has resulted in chasing "cents rather than dollars" and has at least 6 drawbacks. It measures effort, not outputs and results; its misaligns interests and encourages unnecessarily prolonging tasks; requires constant addition of staff to increase profitability; it burns out people and destroys innovation; it encourages possessive client ownership by individual professionals; it creates friction with clients who want value for money, ie focus on outputs, rather than pay for inputs. Recently some professional firms have become upfront about fees by communicating value and setting fixed prices. This has discouraged the concept of client ownership and focuses on collective performance and collective rewards, rather than individual financial performance; it aligns the reward system with the wants of needs of clients and staff. This increases the focus on effectiveness (doing the right things), reduces the focus on efficiency (doing things right) and increases creativity as clients pay on performance.

Po: - every customer is a designer....................Threadless.com is a T-shirt silk screening company that was founded in 2001 and by 2005 had sold around $US 6 million worth of T-shirts. Normally a T-shirt-printing company would focus on printing shirts fast and cheap and/or use aggressive advertising with licenses, retail deals, etc. Threadless only sells on their web site; they do not advertise. They print designs created by the customers; all designs are available for purchase. They regularly hold design contests. Generally nascent designers promote the designs to their friends and encourage them to buy. It is like pyramid selling.

Po: - homemakers become entrepreneurs......an on-line web site (Etsy) was started so that people are able to buy and sell all things home-made. For a small fee anyone can be part of a virtual craft fair 24/7 that overcomes the obstacles of geography and circumstances. Members are encouraged to post their profiles alongside their wares so that it has the camaraderie of the real-world craft fair. In 2009 gross sales reached $US 180 million; with monthly on-line visits exceeding 670 million and over 250,000 stall holders (NB McDonald's has 31,000 stores world wide). Furthermore, it is turning into a social network site.

Po: - clothes that she likes in magazines could pop off the page and into her wardrobe.......................this resulted in changing the way female shop for clothes by selling designer fashion over the Internet. Traditionally, people wanted to handle and try on clothes first. Natalie Massenet developed "Net-a-Porter" which offered a vast selection of designer pieces, available 24/7 and delivered to your door-step. It now has 3 million users in 171 countries, 1,000 staff and annual sales of $ 500+ million.

Po: - giving homeless a home......................................homeless people are very expensive to keep on the streets, especially when the cost of catering for problems of substance abuse, illnesses, crimes, treatments, etc is factored in. They use up many resources like the emergency services (police, ambulances, etc), medical resources (hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical drugs, etc), others (courts, prisons, social workers, etc), etc. Experience in the USA has demonstrated that providing the homeless with an apartment, and with professional back-up, costs around 1/3 of what it costs to "keep them on the streets". Furthermore, many homeless placed in apartments have changed their life-styles and become income-earning, tax-paying citizens.

Po: - intentional pollution.............this involves intentionally dumping chemicals in the atmosphere to reverse the damage done by dumping chemicals in the atmosphere by factories. A group of creative thinkers developed the idea of a "garden-hose-to-the-sky" (stratosphere shield for climate stabilisation). It is like a controlled volcanic eruption whose cooling effects are known. For example, after the volcanic eruption of Pinatubo (Phillippines, 1991) that pushed sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere, there was in a decrease in ozone, more diffuse sunlight and a sustained drop in global temperature. Based on this, the idea is to get 34 gallons per minute of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere via burning sulphur into sulphur oxide and then liquefying it. The hose would be 18 miles long and like a firehose in diameter. The hose would be suspended from a series of high strength, helium-filled balloons fastened to the hose at 100 to 300 m intervals, like a string of pearls. The liquefied sulphur dioxide would be pushed skyward by small pumps positioned every hundred metres. At the end of the hose, a cluster of nozzles would spray out a fine mist of colourless liquid sulphur dioxide. The strong winds in the stratosphere would spread liquid sulphur dioxide around the earth in about 10 days. This has been called Budyko's blanket and would cost around $US 250 million and could effectively reverse global warming. A variation of this is "chimney in the sky". This involves attaching long, skinny hot air balloons to an existing power plant smokestack, thus creating a channel that lets hot sulphur gas, by its own buoyancy, into the stratosphere

Po: - use the ocean to produce it own clouds (soggy mirrors).........................the formation of clouds need 3 essential ingredients, ie ascending air, water vapour and cloud condensation nuclei (solid particles). The oceans lack these nuclei and allow more sunlight to reach the earth surface, ie they are less reflective. Furthermore, the oceans, owing to their dark colour, are good at absorbing the sun's heat. It has been estimated that by increasing the reflectivity by around 10 percent of oceanic clouds, the earth would cool enough to counter even a doubling of current greenhouse gas levels. Fortunately, salt-rich spray from seawater provides excellent nuclei for cloud formation. This spray needs to rise several metres above the ocean's surface so that it will lift itself upwards to the altitude where clouds form. One way to do this is the use of a fleet of wind-powered fibreglass boats with under-water turbines that produce a steady stream of spray.

Po: - selling an emotional experience.....................successful, up-market, jeans-selling brand "J Brand" aims to make you feel and look beautiful, feel sexy, confident, ie they are compliments that you will remember. The product provides instant fashion that looks amazing, fits perfectly, is of superior quality yet affordable.

Po: - all managers are betel-nut chewers.....................in some countries like PNG, Solomon Islands, etc, betel nut chewing is common practice as a social activity and a stimulant, like coffee/tea drinking in other countries. Unfortunately betel nut chewing has some negative impacts, ie artificially colouring teeth and gums; the red fluid that is spat out stains footpaths, etc; and there is an increased the risk of mouth cancer. A possible solution is to modify the nut, via plant breeding, so that is colourless, able to be swallowed and has none of the cancerous problems, while maintaining its stimulant characteristics

Po: - a trial marriage.....................with high rates of separation and divorce from marriages, a trial period of living together before making the commitments to marriage may help reduce separations/divorces later on, ie people will have time to evaluate their compatibility and suitability for marriage before making commitments. In some way this is already happening with potential partners living together before making any firm commitment

Po: - rascals as a theme park.....................there are gangs of criminals (mostly youth) called "rascals" who cause "law and order" problems in the capital of PNG, Port Moresby. Law enforcement authorities have had little impact on their criminal activities. A way to attract tourists to Port Moresby would be to organise the rascals as performers in theme parks which highlight their illegal activities. This may reduce the "law and order" problems, give lawful employment to the rascals and attract the tourist dollar

Po: - insects as food..................with the food (especially protein) shortages in many developing countries, the eating of insects is seen as a way to combat food shortages, ie a cheap supplement for meat protein. Also, they are seen as an anti-obesity strategy for the developed world, ie a cheap, healthy source of protein and food with little fat.

Po: - one-offs rather than one-size-fits-all..........we are shifting from mass standardisation to mass customisation. For example, 3-D printers can print a range of materials, such as plastics, resins, foods (chocolate, pasta, breakfast cereals, burgers, etc) and ceramics. It is called additive manufacturing. These printers are now being used to make items that are customised to consumers' individual needs, like

- dresses (using fine sheets of powdered nylon that underwent selective laser sintering (SLS) and were built layer upon layer into a 3-D form. A dress was printed in 12 pieces that were fully articulated and movable; each piece was dyed, crystalled and assembled into the dress)

- Nike has used 3-D printing to manufacture lightweight football studs

- London designer (Ron Arad) has used the process to create monolithic glasses for eyewear brand PQ

- architects are using this technology in model-making by printing components of the buildings or even whole buildings. A system called "contour crafting" uses a movable gantry to lay concrete

- there is a possibility this may be used to develop artificial human tissue to repair damaged nerves or muscles, and maybe to make artificial organs.

"...Computational design and new robotic construction techniques are opening up the possibility for new forms and a renewed interest in ornamentation."

Anna McCooe, 2013

This technology will take high design to the mainstream, ie selling blueprints instead of products direct to consumer. Thus huge savings in the supply chain are possible as transport and storage costs are eliminated, as are the margins previously added by "middlemen". This would make design, and thus products, more affordable.

Po: - a communication system that could survive a nuclear attack...........resulted in the development of the internet

Po: - everyone, anywhere, can visit an art museum.................................. as most people who interested in art are unable to visit art museums, digital technology is providing an alternative. Two museums have turned to digital technology and engagement to increase their audience; they are the Metropolitan Museum of Art (The Met) and the Brooklyn Museum - both ambitious, cosmopolitan New York art institutions - and are using it in different ways that had different impacts, ie

i) The Met uses digital technology to take people into the studios of local artists and/or reach millions via Weibo (a micro blogging platform) and Instagram (provides glimpses of the collection). The Met has published a "Timeline of Art History" that attracts 1/3 of all its web traffic and has a digital gallery called "One Met. Many Worlds". It has had 6 m. physical visitors and 29 m. visitors to its website Weibo; 92 m. have visited its Facebook page. This has involved a cultural change considering the traditional museum's dilemma in the digital age, ie making the museum more accessible without watering down credibility. The Internet

"...as a thing that annihilates place, making it possible to be here, there and everywhere..."

Anand Giridharadas, 2014

ii) The Brooklyn Museum's digital efforts revolve around games like Freeze Tag!, Tag! You're It, On Click!, Split Second, etc. It has used games like Freeze Tag! and Tag! You're It to engage people while simultaneously making the online collection more easily searchable by future users. But 50%+ of its players were museum professionals; with most coming from its own staff!!!!! On Click! users were evaluating photographs with people from 40 countries playing the game, but 64% were from New York, New Jersey and Connecticut - these locals did 74% of the evaluation! Split Second has people voting on paintings. The lack of engagement by outsiders, eg non museum professionals has shocked the museum and made it rethink its digital strategy.

Po: - mundane data generates innovation.....one way to stimulate public and business innovation is to encourage governments to release raw public data they collect online - crime statistics, health, public transport schedules, weather, etc - in useful formats. Making this data available on the web (in a non-proprietary format), and training people to make use of the data, will increase innovation, generate new businesses, etc. The UN commission recently estimated that "open data innovation" could deliver around an annual US$ 50 billion boost to the European economies. Some examples

i) Brightscope (a US financial information firm) allows 60 million Americans with more than $US 4 trillion invested in retirement plans to compare plans easily. US pension plan data is reported annually by the US Labour Department. This free public website ranks more than 45,000 retirement plans on factors such as returns, contributions, fees, charges, etc as part of its analytics service

ii) the value of personal data

- the accelerometers in smart phones can track how many steps you have walked or climbed

- apps can calculate calories, fat and other nutritional content

- wrist band sensors can monitor heartbeat and temperature

"...Nobody else has more interest in my health than me. Nobody else also has the opportunity to take that health and fitness data and merge it with other data like which drugs I'm taking and my DNA..."

Sir Tim Berners-Lee as quoted by Rachel Botman, 2013

On the other hand, this integration of personal data being shared across websites, apps and other devices is threatened by the

- siloed systems used by Apple

- the walled social networks used by Facebook

- governments wanting to control and reduce the independence of the Internet

Po: - accountants to save the planet..................................traditionally financial accounting focused on internalities and tangibles, etc like financial assets and liabilities, etc, that produced goods & services. On the other hand, a large amount of a firm's value are not reflected by these financial accounting methods. For example, in the mid-1990s was the first time the share market value of a new knowledge-based company, Microsoft, exceed GE's (a successful, traditional "bricks and mortar" firm producing goods and services). Since then many more knowledge-based companies like Facebook, Google, Twitter, Apple, etc have stock market valuations in tens of billions of dollars but accountants are struggling to measure their real worth in traditional accounting terms, ie book values, as opposed to their stock market values. Much of the value is hidden in non-financial, intangible assets, like human and intellectual capital.

Also, the failure of our indicators, like gross domestic product (GDP), to consider non-economic issues, like wellness, nature, etc has allowed us to pollute, burn, extract and chop down resources, with little regard for consequences to the sustainability of the environment, community, etc.

It estimated that current corporate accounts now convey only 20 to 30% of a firm's value, whereas 40 years ago they could capture up to 90% (Jane Gleeson-White, 2014).

Many businesses are struggling to address the enormous social and environmental problems of the world, but feel bound to pursue short-term profit as a legal obligation to act in the interests of their shareholders.

Thus the current report concepts/values/criteria, etc need to expand beyond finance, manufacturing, etc to include

- intellectual value/capital (patents, intellectual property, data, information, knowledge, skills, expertise, training, etc),

- social value/capital (community impacts, social relationships, human balance sheet, human behaviour elements such as ethics, governance, safety, terrorism, etc)

- nature value/capital (sustainability, environmental factors such as waste, air pollution, impacts on soil, animals, vegetation, etc).

Putting a price on these items has a persuasive impact in nature's favour. This is linked with important capital allocation decisions involving basic infrastructure as transport, power, water, communications, etc that are long-term projects and are seen as high risk. On the other hand, are investors willing to accept lower returns for the sake of society and the planet?

The impacts of the GFC (2008) and the information/digitalisation/internet age, etc, have highlighted the need for a broader approach. One way to handle this is a concept called "integrated reporting", ie describing changes in the capital and value creation process over time as an ongoing consideration rather than focusing predominantly on recent financial transactions. It is

"...a conceptual structure to enable businesses to broaden their thinking about value and their business models; in other words, to facilitate the holistic thinking about their organisation's relationship with an impact on the economy, society and nature.......It is about promoting a new sort of corporate report..."

Jane Gleeson-White, 2014

There are around 1,000 companies in the world experimenting with integrated reporting; in 2011, already almost all of the world's 250 biggest firms were publishing sustainability formation (Jane Gleeson-White, 2014)

Alternatives to integrated reporting are

- a ratings agency like Standard & Poors

- auditing based on "benefit" to all stakeholders (workers, community, planet, etc), not just shareholders.

(NB by mid-2014, 26 US states had passed "benefit" corporation legislation; 1,000+ corporations in 34 countries and in 60 different industries have been classified as "B" corporations, ie they pass the benefit test: a corporation cannot maximise profit, while ignoring all the negative consequences of its behaviour.

Po: - clients come to me..................................traditionally consultants go to their clients and work with them. With the advent of social media (Internet, VOIP, Apps, mobile phones, etc), clients can come to consultants for advice and material via an app

Po: - unlimited advertising.................................traditional media advertising has limited time, ie finite. For example in a newspaper it is published on a particular day, allocated a specific time on radio and/or TV. While on YouTube it is allocated to a particular video rather than any time slot, ie the ad can be viewed whenever the video is played. The airtime is effectively unlimited with 300 hours of new content being uploaded every minute; YouTube has a daily worldwide viewing of 1 b. people.

Po: - your phone as a wallet...........................................................the smart phone is allowing people to pay for consumables, etc by their phone rather than credit cards or cash. This is being further refined by using other identification techniques to the traditional PIN or password. These other identification techniques (biometrics) include voice print, iris or eye blood vessel pattern, facial recognition, measurement of a person's gait, heart rhythms, etc.

Po: - be an icon and innovate.........................................................traditionally firms stay with successful products too long, ie fail to re-invent themselves and/or products until it is too late. Also, customers want to wear the icon brand or to try something new. It is an "either or" situation. Levi has changed this from an "either or" to an "and" situation by combining the two, ie launching a tapered version of its iconic jeans (501) call 501CT and to position Levi's as a lifestyle brand. As only 5 to 8% of anyone's money that is spent on clothes is made up of denim products, there is a potential to increase this spend on other Levi products like belt, underwear, jacket, white T-shirt, leather goods, etc

Po: - green is the new black or slow fashions........................................................in the fashion and design world there is an increasing consciousness on eco-friendliness, ie concern about our legacy for future generations. Celebrities are promoting and financing green causes such as wildlife and habitat preservation, healthy oceans, water access, climate change, etc. For example Leonardo DiCaprio has formed his foundation to save the planet; Brad Pitt has built an eco-friendly theme park for his family; George Clooney has launched Oil Change to reduce America's dependence on oil and drives an eco-friendly car; Justin Timberlake has won an award for an eco-friendly golf course in Tennessee. While Francois-Henri Pinault (CEO of Kering, a conglomerate that owns Gucci, Stella McCartney, Alexander McQueen and Saint Laurent Paris) has a focus on new and appealing solutions to a more sustainable world and is reducing Kerimg's environmental footprint by finding sustainable solutions for sourcing its raw materials and to ensure that an ethical approach is embedded across the organisation. His organisation is pioneering environmental profit and loss statements that highlight group's environmental impact; it also has an in-house centre dedicated to research and development of sustainable and innovative textiles. All this has led to the concept of slow fashions, ie fashion collections don't necessarily adhere to standard seasons, like spring, summer, autumn, winter, etc but are more interested in sustainability which is embedded in the consciousness of innovation and linked with ethics. Thus the focus is on switching to "tran-seasonality" where fashions survive for more than a season.

Po: - newspapers for everyone................traditionally the Washington Post has focused on being the leading newspaper in the USA capital, Washington. Since Tony Bezos of Amazon fame, purchased the newspaper in August 2013, he has applied the same principles that worked for Amazon to the Washington Post. He is asking his staff to think big about what a digital newspaper will look like in future decades that will keep millions of readers interested, ie produce things that customers love? How can journalism survive on the Web? Like with Amazon, he aims to penetrate the lives of millions of Americans and once this occurs, expects profits will follow. The same rationale turned Amazon into the world's largest Internet retailer, revolutionised consumption and the way we read books, eg Kindle. One impact has been on the Washington Post website user numbers. The Post is the largest newspaper in the US capital and launched its first website in June 1996. In May 2004, management tried unsuccessfully to convince their then publisher (Don Graham) to adopt a more aggressive Internet strategy. But Graham was more interested in maintaining the newspaper's leading position in Washington as it had been an important money maker for many decades, rather than using the Internet to expand its readership beyond Washington. On the other hand, Tony Bezos has actively encouraged his staff at the Post to continue developing the website so that the Post could become a truly national and international media player, ie the preferred destination of American newspaper readers. As a result, the Post's website hds increased to 42 m. users by September 2014. Bezos has liberated the Post in both monetary and psychological terms. In 2014, the Post began running a "Partner Program" in an attempt to gain millions of new readers outside Washington. Under this program, subscribers to hundreds of US regional newspapers can gain full, free access to the Post website and all its apps; not even the partner newspapers are paying the Post. Also, millions of subscribers to the Netflix online video service and LinkedIn Korea network can receive free digital subscription to the Post; people using Amazon's Kindles have the Post's app installed automatically - initially free. Bezo wants the Post to become a Silicon Valley laboratory or technology hub for the newspaper world using interactive graphics, fast data analysis, etc.; they want to be able to provide the journalists with data on how their stories are performing. There is less pressure on immediate profitability and an increasing focus on growth for long-term profitability. Everything possible is now being measured and calculated, eg
- Which articles on the website are read the most or liked on Facebook?
- Which terms are people searching for on Google at the moment?
- Which articles on the website should become bigger or smaller, based on this search data
Social networks are continually scanned for feedback on what readers want and/or are interested in, eg during the writing process, journalists are automatically being informed on how many people are currently discussing the topic they are writing on; which stories are most popular amongst different demographics like gender, age groups, etc. As a result journalists can't just follow topics of their own interest, they have to be aware of what the readers are engaged by.

Po: share your trading information with everyone..........................in many ways the traditional wealth management industry is too complex and intimidating for the typical investor to handle plus it caters for the wealthy, ie to open an account at Goldman Sachs, you need US $10 million. It has been alleged that the existing financial system is just conditioning people to be afraid of making their own financial decisions and to rely on others; it encourages apathy in its clients. As a result, most people use intermediaries to control their money like wealth management funds, stockbrokers, financial planners, bankers, etc. Also, the traditional players have the mindset that technology cannot compete with their professionalism. In 2007, 2 brothers (Ronen & Yoni Assia) created a social trading platform called eToro; it aimed to open the global markets for everyone. It is based on the belief that people should be more connected with their money, have better accessibility to, and knowledge of, the markets and should invest in what they believe in. The platform is similar to other social networks: people can follow, interact and copy each other. But instead of sharing photos, etc, people share detailed financial information about trades. This allows inexperienced traders to learn from more experienced investors in real time. Initial reaction from the finance industry was that people will not share their financial trading activities over the Internet. This has proved to be incorrect as people have been willing to share their trading portfolios with others on the platform. One needs only US $1,000 to open an account with eToro.  The platform has 4.5 m traders from 170+ countries; billions of dollars have been traded (2015). At the same time (2008 - 2014), most wealth management firms have struggled to attract new client assets.

Po: - banks pay you to take money and you pay money to deposit it with the bank.......................................normally when borrowing money from the bank you pay interest on the funds you borrow and if you deposit money with a bank, it pays you interest on your deposit. Since the GFC, banks have used negative interest rates, ie turned the traditional banking financial relationship upside down with depositors paying banks to take deposits and lenders being paid to take loans.
These loans now account for 1/4 of Europe's government debt. In 2014, Germany, Austria, Finland & Spain all sold short-term debt at sub-zero yields. In January 2015, the Swiss National Bank lowered its interest rate on deposits to - 0.75%.  One consequence of this is that bonds are no longer trading like bonds, they are now trading like commodities; with investors speculating on the price.

Po: - intergrate schools and business to expose students to real world problems......................many high school students are not adequately prepared for university and/or the job market, especially for professional level careers. In the USA, schools are teaming up with companies such as those specialising in technology, advanced manufacturing, telecommunications, health care, environment and finance sectors to deliver Pathways in Technology Early College High School (P-TECH). US President Obama supported the concept (2013). The program embeds practical workplace skills into the regular curriculum subjects, such as maths, english and social studies. For example, students might learn statistical skills if they were working with a real estate developer. It aims to teach more than technical skills like computer programming, included is training in the soft/tough skills like teamwork, oral communications, writing presentations, project management, collaboration, problem-solving, enquiry, etc.

"...students progress at their own learning rate and of the end 6 year program, which starts in 9th grade they can graduate with not only a certificate for completing the 4 years of high school (under the US system) but also a two year college degree..."

John Kehoe et al, 2015

Already there are around 70 corporations linked with the program (2015) and they include IBM, Bombardier, Cisco Systems, Fujitsu, GE, Lockheed Martin, Microsoft, Motorola and many others. These organisations can help mould the skills of prospective employees. On the other hand, a lot of the graduates are employed by organisations who are not involved in the program

Staff from these partner organisations are in the schools and help design the curriculum. It is like private-public partnerships. However, there is some criticism that the corporate world and education should be kept separate as they have different agendas.

In a variation of this, some universities are linking with high schools

Po: - just-in-time, bite-sized learning......................................there is a need for regular short courses to fulfil the needs of people as their careers progress, ie generate extra skills that make them more employable. This applies the principles of logistics to determine what you need to learn and when. With technological change increasing the obsolescence of knowledge and changing job roles, there is a growing need for learning what we want, when we need it. This has been called digital badging, ie
"...do a short course in a particular area and earn a badge. Earn several badges and string together a CV which will impress an employer..."
Tim Dodd, 2014
This is thought to be most appropriate for the knowledge-based society, especially industries like IT, finance, etc when knowledge changes rapidly and shorter courses would be more relevant to their jobs
"...these bite-size chunks of learning are at the heart of a revolution in skills accreditation which is coming, and not from government or education regulators, but from education providers and entrepreneurs who are driving one of the biggest disrupters ever to meet education - online learning..."
Daniel Musson as quoted by Tim Dodd, 2014
This is regarded as a way for on-line courses (MOOC) to go mainstream.
Also with increasing numbers of students studying online, there is a massive amount of data generated around how people learn, what works and what does not, etc. This can lead to "adaptive learning" in which the learning program instantly adjusts what is offered to the level of understanding, interest, etc the students show.
NB Education is one of the last areas where the product rather than the customer is a major focus. This is reinforced with employers complaining about the lack of work readiness of today's university graduates.

Po: - cradle to cradle.....................................this needs to be linked with a viable business model, eg the concept of material life cycles, ie a source can be grown or mined, manufactured, used, discarded, then recycled into something altogether new (green technologies). While small-scale recycling of domestic waste started in the 1970s, the large-scale recycling of building construction materials is relatively new. Sometimes it is called upcycling, ie recycling that adds value. An example of agricultural waste (bio waste) being used in buildings is the use stalks from hydroponic tomato plants. These tomato stalks and similar products, like seaweed, are bound in composite building panels with the help of a vegetal compound, ie mushroom myselium (a fungus consisting of millions of hyphae) - when mixed in a mulch it becomes a natural, self assembling glue. The digestive crop waste produces rigid materials; it is mixed and pumped into a mould and left in the dark, consuming no energy. After 5 days it is a solid material that is used to replace poly-styrene

Po: - your competitor becomes a partner.................................in 2009 Microsoft dominated the software industry and was under investigation by the US Federal authorities owing to its alleged mis-use of its monopoly position in the industry. At the same time Apple had less than 5% of this market and was going bankrupt. Steve Jobs (one of the founders of Apple who was fired by Apple) was invited back to try to resurrect Apple's fortunes. Jobs needed an injection of funds to immediately reinvigorate Apple's innovation and prevent it from going broke. Previously Apple and Microsoft had a long-standing dispute around issues like whether Microsoft's Windows Operating System infringes on any of Apple's patents, etc.. It is claimed that Job convinced Bill Gates to invest US$ 150m into Apple on the basis that Microsoft needed to keep Apple as a competitor to help handle the anti-trust charges against Microsoft, ie it was better to have a competitor than none.

Po: no need for big marketing budgets and departments.................................traditional approach to marketing is changing owing to the power of social media. Traditionally large amounts of money, people's expertise and time, etc would be spent on marketing. With social media you are able to get the right product with the right promotion to any market you choose very cheaply and quickly

Po:- respect defaulting customers.................................the traditional approach to customers defaulting on their loans is to take a legalistic approach via correspondence demanding payment within a certain period or taking legal action to recover the money owing. Some of the language used around compliance regulations was not customer friendly. One Australian bank (NAB) realised that most customers prefer to do the right thing when in financial hardship.  Thus it linked up with a mental health organisation (Lifeline) to train its staff to spot and manage customers in financial hardship. This involved a complete rethink about how to communicate sensitive language with their customers; the underlying approach is to show respect to the customer. This approach has helped 100,000+ NAB customers who were in financial distress; this has resulted in a 20% decline in loan defaults and A$7.2 m. in cost savings because of early intervention (Patrick Durkin, 2015c)

Po:- males push gender equality.................................there was limited progress on gender equality in organisations despite the laws, rules regulations, policies, etc.. So Elisabeth Brodrick, when she was Australia's Sex Discrimination Commissioner, developed a program entitled Male Champions of Change. Starting in early 2010 with 6 chief executives and chairmen from large Australian-based companies, it has grown to 150 (mid July 2015). The idea is to get powerful men to talk to other powerful men about their experiences and how to change the status quo plus enforce stringent reporting requirements on performance around gender equity.
"...it is about men stepping up beside women, not speaking for them, not saving them......and accepting responsibility and accountability the gender equality..."
Elizabeth Brodrick  as quoted by Clare Stewart 2015
In 2014, when some companies, led by the male champions had poor performance on gender equality, additional pressure was applied to improve performance and get away from any criticism that is was just back-patting and public posturing

Po:- top performing school creates a real estate bonanza.................................the location of top ranked, non-selective government schools correlates directly with property prices and the rental market. For example, in Melbourne (Australia), Balwyn High School has a reputation for excellent academic performance of its students. As a result, parents are keen for their children to attend this school but they need to live in a specific geographical area for their children to be eligible to attend this school. It is estimated that the "Balwyn High Effect" has a 10 to 15% loading on housing prices in the school's catchment area. Linked with this are parental engagement in the school and school leadership, ie the school inculcates a culture of excellence, eg "it is cool to do well". Students from 50+ nationalities attend Balwyn High. A similar story for real estate in the catchment area around Brisbane State High in Queensland, Australia

Po:- ride a bike to save yourself and the world.................................bike riding reduces obesity and saves fossil fuels. Riding a bike burns body fat where driving a car burns fossil fuel!!! Encouraging bicycle use would help reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emission, and improve public health and safety.  This is supported by research, eg in New Zealand has shown that if 5% of the total kilometres travelled by car was done by bicycle instead, the benefits would be
"...- save 22 m. litres of fuel
     - reduced transport-related greenhouse gas emissions by 0.4%
     - avoid 116 deaths due to healthier lifestyles with more physical activity
     - avoid 6 deaths from improved local air quality (due to decreased vehicle emissions)
     - avoid 5 cyclist fatalities in road crashes
     - financial savings in New Zealand of $200 m. per year..."

Graeme Lindsay as quoted by Stefan Hajkowicz, 2015
Other benefits include
- savings on building costs as bikeways are cheaper to build than roads
- considerably less space occupied by parking bicycles compared with cars
- around 70% of all trips made by cars are less than 7 km in distance (NB electric bikes are a possible alternative for longer journeys).
On the other hand, there is a higher fatality rate for bicycles, eg in the USA, 0.55 per 10 m. miles while for cars it is 0.01. In more bicycle-friendly countries like the Netherlands the fatalities are around 6 times less than in the USA.  However, around 90% of all bicycle-related fatalities come from accidents involving cars, vans and trucks.

Po:- turn waste into wealth.....................................all materials are valuable product just awaiting conversion from their current form to another, such as plastic cups, discarded computer screens, old car bodies, mobile phones, etc. Recycling can convert the vast amount of waste into wealth; recycling of used materials could help reduce the scarcity of some minerals like gold, copper, etc. It could allow substituting energy (renewable) for minerals. Perhaps it could reduce the risk of countries going to war against each other over ownership of resources.

Po:- no retirement....................................with the ageing population resulting in people living longer with insufficient savings for a comfortable retirement, there is a need for people to remain in the workforce longer and become less dependent on the younger workforce to generate enough wealth to pay for retirees. An alternative is to keep older people working longer by designing career paths to allow people to gradually scale back and change their duties as they become older (including flexible working arrangements), eg old tradesmen become coaches for younger tradesmen, aged professionals tutor and train the next generation, etc. Thus employment of older people will help themselves financially and the economy. It also have benefits to thier mental and physical health and quality of life, eg experiences plus helping and interacting with others.

Po:- no business is like show business..................................................fashion is about entertainment in the digital world. Most of the fashion leaders are celebrities like Ford/Marco Bizzarri, Yves Saint Laurent, John Galliano, Giorgio Armani, Calvin Klein, etc. Most people who attend fashion shows are journalists, bloggers and celebrities. Most fashion shows are for entertainment and are consumer-focussed hoping to reach social media, editorials and the relationships they have with retailers. Nearly all designers are on Instagram with most people's first experiencing a collection on their computer/smart phone. The lead time from fashion show to availability for the consumer is getting shorter.
"...there is no science to fashion; success relies on triggering that most material of emotion, desire.  You need both business strategy and creative vision..."
Marion Hume, 2016
The luxury end of the fashion business has grown exponentially but there's not enough talent around to handle it.

· Not all the above examples were generated by utilizing the Po technique

· Remember: the more extreme the Po is, the more powerful it can be in creating new thoughts

· One way to start the process when in groups is to ask each member of the group to come up with his/her thoughts on the Po, ie run around the table

(sources: Edward deBono, 1992; Cait Murphy, 2002; Peter Drucker, 2002; John Lyons, 2002c; Brian Fischer, 2002; Jacob Goldenberg et al, 2003; Jack Welch et al, 2001; Dava Sobel, 1998; Ernie Christie, 2001; Leon Gettler, 2002a: Piers Dudgeon, 2001; Bill Perryman, 2003; Gary Hamel et al, 2003; Bernard Salt, 2003; Nolan Meats, 2001; Catherine Fox, 2004; Xerox Business Centre, 2004; Graham Collins, 2004; Neil Shoebridge, 2004; Jill Margo, 2005; Harry Osman, 2004d; Abe Simpson, 2005: Mandy Johnson, 2005; Karlson Hargroves et al, 2005; Steven Levitt, et al 2005; Peter Senge et al, 2005; Emily Ross et al, 2004; Edward deBono, 2005; David Kirkpatrick, 2005; Fiona Smith, 2005d; James Hall, 2006; Jill Margo, 2006; Madhusree Mukerjee, 2006; Fiona Smith, 2006; Philip Parker, 2006; Brad Howarth, 2006; Jeffrey Sachs, 2006; Clay Chandler, 2007; Sheridan Prasso, 2007; Howard Gardner, 2006; Fiona Smith, 2007c; Brad Hatch et al, 2007; Marion Hume, 2008; Nikki Goldstein, 2008; Richard Branson, 2008; Julian Birkinshaw, 2009; Malcolm Gladwell, 2008; The Economist, 2009; Narelle Hooper, 2009; Mike Hanley, 2009; Angus Grigg, 2009; Marion Hume, 2010; Fiona Carruthers, 2009; Seth Godin, 2007; Brad Hatch, 2009; Matthew Smith, 2009; Fiona Smith, 2009z; Marguerite Winter, 2010; Fiona Smith, 2010a: Nick Lenaghan, 2010; Marion Hume, 2010a; Venkat Ramaswamy & Francis Gouillart, 2010; Robyn Meredith, 2008; Steven Levitt et al, 2009; Carrie Lafrenz, 2012; Katrina Stickland, 2012a; Julian Cribb, 2012; Barack Obama, 2007; Rajmohan Gandhi, 2008; Chip Health, 2011; Marion Hume, 2013 & a; Anna McCooe, 2013; SBS, 2013; Bill Synnot & Peter Loko, 2013, Rachel Botman, 2013; Victor Mayer-Schonberger et al, 2013; Maitiu Ward, 2013; Greg Earl, 2013; David Freedman, 2013; Bill Synnot, 2012; Andrew Cornell, 2013a; Paul Smith, 2013; Joshua Keating, 2013; Matthew Drummond, 2013;Jonathan Shapiro, 2013; Will Oremus, 2013 ;The Economist, 2013b; Victor Mayer-Schonberger et al, 2013; Jane Gleeson-White, 2014; Bill Synnot, 2015;Pip Coates, 2014; James Ward, 2014; Amy Kraft, 2014: Tim Binstead, 2014/15; Katarina Kroslakova, 2014; James Greiff, 2015; Simon Evans & Sue Mitchell, 2015; Bill Gurley, 2015; Nassim Nicolas Taleb et al, 2015; Jessica Gardner & Joanna Heath, 2015; John Brooks, 1969; James Eyers, 2015; Shaun Drummond, 2015; Hannah Tattersall, 2015; Muriel Reddy, 2015; Isabell Hulsen, 2015; The Lex Column, 2015; Richard Milne, 2015; Lance Richardson, 2015; Fiona Smith, 2015b; Jason Clout, 2015; John Kehoe et al, 2015; Tim Dodd, 2014; Andrew McKenzie, 2015; Dawn Kawamoto, 2009; Alexander Osterwalder et al, 2010; John Stensholt, 2015; Rachel Botsman, 2015/2016; Nick Carroll, 2016; Patrick Durkin, 2015c; Clare Stewart, 2015; Stefan Hajkowicz, 2015)

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