Change Implementation Techniques for Forming Transitional Team, Creating Alignment, Maximizing Connectedness and Creativity

Scale of Motivation

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This is an expanded version of Maslow's work, ie


Maslow's motives*i

Expanded motives*ii



6c. Enlightenment



6b. World soul



6a. Higher service


Higher Needs


5b. Generativity



5 Self-actualisation

5a. Mastery



4c. Power-within



4. Self-esteem

4b. Gregariousness & co-operation




4a. Exploration



3b. Self-assertion



3. Belonging

3a. Anger



2c. Craving



2. Security

2b. Fear


of Needs


2a. Anguish



1c. Apathy



1. Survival

1b. Guilt & shame



1a. De-personalisation


i. Maslow had 5 motivators. He believed that organisations and cultures had limitless capacity for growth and change and described the 'hierarchy of needs'

"...5 basic needs that must be satisfied if you are to survive, find satisfaction and reach your potential. First, you acquire your basic physical needs - such as food, water and shelter - to be met. Second, you need to achieve safety and the free from threat. Third, you need to feel loved and develop a sense of belonging to a social group. Fourth in hierarchy is the need for esteem - to have your accomplishments recognized by others and achieve self-respect. At the top of the pyramid is the fifth need, 'self-actualization'......defined simply as, ' one must do what he or she can do'......involves having the wisdom not to accept the roles of others have prescribed for you. Instead, it's about deciding to become the person you know your self capable of being...... it takes a certain amount of courage and emotional energy to take up this challenge..."

Martyn Newman, 2007

ii. Maslow's 5 are extended to 16 by Danah Zohar et al (2004)

iii. The positives and negatives mirror each other, eg +3 of "power-within" mirrors -3 "cravings", -2 "anger" mirrors +2 "co-operation", etc. This mirroring allows us to identify the "shadow" characteristics of any given motivation

For example, the rise of Hitler is linked with Germany's humiliating defeat in World War 1, the impact of the world-wide depression and Hitler's failure as an artist. Thus, Hitler was movitated by guilt and shame (-7), craving for power and glory (-3) and self-assertion (-1). These motives became apparent in his speeches, body language and strategies. If the Allied leaders had responded early from a position of power-within (+3) or mastery (+4) rather than waiting until he had invaded Austria and Poland, the story in the 1930s and 40s may have been very different. Instead they responded from a position of fear (-4) and subsequently it is estimated that over 12 million people died in WW2.

There are 2 kinds of motivational shifts, ie external and internal

- external shifts result from the influence of others or the environment; these shifts are likely to be temporary or dependent on the external influence remaining

- internal shifts result from examining motives, coming to understand the purposes and values that underlie them, and then shifting those values themselves

Associated with the concept of the scale of motivation are 4 basic principles

i) a negative person or culture cannot help another on the negative scale, ie 2 people at the anger level will just spark each other and make each other more angry

ii) equality of opposites is not enough to cancel each other out or to raise another up the scale. to have the power to raise up another, the situation needs someone who is above the others on the scale, ie to raise a -3, need at least someone at +4

iii) the higher the magnitude, the greater the influence, ie a -3 will drag down a +2

iv) use self-awareness and emotional control to improve one's position on the scale

The benefit of analysing motivation in such an explicit way is that the motivational climate within an organization can move from self-interest to dedication, as stress is replaced with fulfilment, compassion is used when handling inequality and anger, and fear is replaced with hope.


"...If we want to change the motives and behaviours of people within corporate culture, we must change the underlying motivations of that culture itself..."

Danah Zohar et al, 2004


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