Organisational Change Management Volume 2

Develop Disciplinary Modes of Thinking

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According to Howard Gardner (2006), there are 3 conditions required to acquire disciplinary modes of thinking to encourage people to change the way they think:

i) regularly and systematically confront any misconceptions

ii) individuals need to absorb themselves deeply in examples, such as specific scientific theories, historical examples, works of art, etc

iii) be willing to approach a topic in the number of different ways

Furthermore, this involves having

"...the patience to conduct routine business routinely, the talent to respond exceptionally to exceptional circumstances, and the wisdom to know the difference between the two..."

Richard Branson, 2008

Mentoring (executive coaching)

Introduction

. Mentoring

"...has emerged from a synthesis of many fields including training, adult learning, consulting, change management, the human potential movement, psychology and systems science..."

David Rock et al, 2006a

"...is around reflecting, how can I improve what I'm doing? And then making a difference in the workplace..."

Raelene Hobson as quoted by Rachel Lebihan, 2012

"...while I was CEO, I'd came to the view that leadership development was pretty important......but managers generally don't coach that well, they don't easily give difficult feedback...... so we used external coaching groups at AMP quite carefully. And I'd seen a lot of personal growth from matching coach to the executive..."
Andrew Mohl (exCEO, AMP) as quoted by Tony Boyd, 2015

. It involves some elements of these roles:

- trainer (starts with a pre-defined input, ie the training content or curriculum, and involves transferring the knowledge from trainer to learner)

- coach (starts with the needs of the learner, not with a prescribed curriculum; it is an ongoing process that focuses on enhancing current capabilities of the learner; usually, coaching is used for short-term intervention to work on a particular management issue. There are 3 approaches to coaching

i) skills (requires details, is specific such as time management, project management, etc)

ii) performance (bigger picture, broader, more personal, such as career progression, etc)

iii) professional and personal development (self-discovery, broader, more strategic/futuristic, such as Who am I? What is the business spirit? What type of leader am I?)

- counsellor (can range from giving advice on performance to admonishing for performance; it generally has a corrective purpose; focuses on behaviours and results achieved)

- consulting (where a professional opinion is sought)

To a lesser extent, mentoring also involves being an adviser, teacher, facilitator, guardian, friend and networker

. In 2011, around 60% of Australian business leaders and 72% of senior managers report working with a mentor/coach (Ann Whyte, 2012). Participating executives claim that mentoring is the most effective professional development activity they undertake and being mentored helps them gain new insights that lead to changes in behaviour.

Great mentoring relationships are reciprocal and generate an extraordinarily valuable asset. If 20 percent of the people are engaged in mentoring relationships, it will raise the quality of both thought and conversation among the other 80 percent, simply because that 20 percent will begin to create a culture of thinking and talking about more significant things.

. A manager is most likely to fail at 1 of 3 key transitional points:

i) first managerial post

ii) first general management role

iii) first time as the most senior executive, such as CEO or MD.

The skills required at each transitional point are different. As there is a broadening and wider perception required at each level of management, support activities such as mentoring, coaching, etc can help make these transitions successful.

- the skills and methods that lead to individual success as a specialist (sales, technologist, clerk, etc) are completely different from those needed to lead a team at a management level. Most new managers incorrectly assume that the new title will give them significant authority and control. They believe that they can manage their staff individually but find the main challenge is getting the team to work together effectively. Furthermore, they incorrectly assume that their main job is to keep the operations on track, rather than conceive of and drive improvements. Many young managers make the problem worse as they are fearful of asking their bosses for help; they feel that their bosses may perceive them as weak or incompetent.

- before becoming general managers, most managers run functional departments, such as sales, marketing, R & D, operations, finance, etc. The subsequent role of a general manager has additional responsibilities associated with developing business strategy, ensuring that all functional departments work together, and delivering bottom-line profitability for all functional departments.

As one goes up organisational ladder, the roles can change, eg going from a divisional to a group CFO means more exposure to treasury, funding and capital and non-financial functions such as investor relations plus handling staff who are reporting to you and who have more technical skill in their area of expertise than you do. Also, your leadership skills may need developing so that you can adequately empower, motivate and support your staff. One way to help develop new skills to handle the new situation is to have an executive coach who has expertise in these areas

- once a person assumes the position of senior executive, the role expands to include understanding what goes on in the organisation plus in the industry and elsewhere. This role requires an ability to see the "big picture"and view things in the long-term (see the section on becoming an agile organisation, etc for more details on a CEO's role).

As the senior executive

"...you have to manage a Board, you have to manage analysts, you have to manage the market, youhave to manage regulators, you have to manage the legislature, you have to manage the media. Your whole notion of decision-making changes and rather than being responsible for all the decisions, you need to set up the processes by which those decisions are made and the people who take them..."

David Morgan as quoted by Andrew Cornell, 2008

Furthermore,

"...the worker who has just been appointed to a managerial position attempts to retain earlier friendships as if nothing has changed; she does not understand that her new job requires that she listen, be listened to, and be respected, rather than that she win a contest of popularity or continue to exchange gossip or intimacies with former peers. The new board member fails to understand that she must now behave in a disinterested manner vis-a-vis the very CEO or president who courted for months and then invited her to join a select, prestigious group..."

Howard Gardner, 2006a

Any new person in a management position is well advised to do

"...lots of listening, watching, studying and conferring......needs a starting point - the best understanding available of what has happened in the company and viable options..."

Howard Gardner, 2006a

It is important to do this before making decisions and to avoid badmouthing your predecessor and/or new colleagues.

Activities such as mentoring, coaching, etc can help make these role transitions successful.

. As the climb up the organisational management structure progresses, there is an increasing sense of loneliness. In many situations there is often no one within the organisation to turn to and discuss things, issues, staff etc. This is where an executive coach/mentor can be advantageous as he/she is outside the organisation and can be very useful in providing independent, objective assessment/advice as a basis for discussion and decision-making.

. With the increasing size and complexity of organisations and "busyness"of senior management, there is less time for mentoring. Yet the need for mentoring is at its greatest as young managers want and demand personal treatment that is customised to their individual needs (this includes hands-on feedback from a senior manager who takes a personal interest in their careers). Thus a corporate, systematic, packaged, generic approach is not acceptable.

. Mentoring is regarded more as a long-term proposition and involves covering a wide range of areas, such as career progression; work/life balances, such as family, health, hobbies; strategic objectives, etc. The future is best broken into 3 personal horizons:

i) short-term (now to 2 years), ie the specific job you are working towards

ii) medium-term (2 - 5 years), ie the role that inspires you but is beyond your current expertise and capabilities

iii) long-term (beyond 5 years), ie what you want to be remembered for (life's purpose or one's calling or leaving a legacy)

As horizons 1 and 2 often change, it is best to start by visualizing horizon 3 and working backwards.

. It has been suggested (Rose-Anne Manns, 2008) that around 60% of people know "their calling"before they turn 20, but it takes another couple of decades to fulfil their dream. A typical progression involves completing education followed by experimentation with a variety of roles to build experience, then specialisation. In their 40s they start to think about how to achieve their calling. This is linked with early parenthood and getting personal finances under control. However, there can be a dark side to this, as a driving force for a calling can sometimes be used to justify dysfunctional behaviour.

Some suggested steps in defining and pursuing a calling include

"...1. Clarify your strong skills - what gives you most joy, and what environment do you feel most comfortable in?

2. Healing and health - do you need to make peace with the past before moving on? Feeling that you have to prove something can impede your progress

3. Options - brainstorm with other people

4. Information - seek out what you need to make a decision; look for jobs, people and situations that inspire

5. Commit - discuss your decision with affected partners

6. Enact your decision - be mindful to sustain it without moving into the "shadow"side..."

Annie Stewart has quoted by Rose-Anne Manns, 2008

. Most effective mentors have a background in a similar type of organisation to that of the mentee's current workplace and/or a knowledge of behaviourial science or a related discipline. On the other hand, having a mentor who comes from a different background can be useful:

"...Someone who comes from a totally different perspective from me, opening my mind to things I hadn't thought before..."

Catherine Dickson has quoted by Rachel Lebihan, 2006

"...someone from outside can have a more free-ranging view of the situation..."

Andrew Mohl as quoted by Sally Patten, 2007

NB Andrew Mohl (ex CEO, AMP) regularly used an executive coach from outside the organisation; the coach would visit once a month. He sees it as a strength rather than a weakness to seek help, and as an integral part of the continual learning process. Furthermore, he feels that it is a waste of time to coach a person who thinks that he/she knows it all.

. Externally and internally sourced people will mentor differently. The external source will tend to be more objective and have less political or historical baggage than an internally-sourced mentor.

. Mentoring requires an understanding of the dynamics of the triangular relationship between mentor, mentee and organisation. Usually the mentoring is done outside the employee-boss relationship, with the mentor coming from outside the organisation as it allows for more frank discussions on relevant issues.

. Mentoring is an important way to have brutally honest conversations. Furthermore,

"...more broadly, it introduced programs to stimulate more creative, innovative thinking among staff. In talent management and succession planning, it included shadow succession planning for key roles..."

Andrew Mohl as quoted by Narrelle Hooper, 2007c

. Research has shown that people who are mentored have a definite advantage in career progress compared with those without mentors. There is a positive relationship between mentoring and promotion, and between mentoring and compensation. Mentoring has been linked to increased confidence as shown by

"....- increased career satisfaction

- greater job involvement

- low turnover intentions

- more power in the organisation

- increased job satisfaction

- improved career planning..."

Maria Gardiner, 2002

. Mentoring has provided a way of making better use of older workers and reduced the chances of marginalizing them in their final years of service. Asking older workers to transfer their wealth of experience is very motivating for them and usually beneficial to all. This ensures that young people have someone more experienced to turn to when needed; simultaneously, the younger people's ideas and enthusiasm can rub off on their mentors.

Reverse mentoring - traditionally, mentoring has involved an older, more experienced, "wiser"person (mentor) with a younger, less experienced person (mentee). On the other hand, there is "reverse mentoring": when the young person is the mentor and an older person occupies the role of the mentee. Some examples are

- young computer nerds or digital natives (mentors) mentoring senior management (mentees) on how to use the Internet, etc, as was the case with GE's former CEO Jack Welch:

"...I have a 23 year old spending three to four hours a week teaching me how to use the Internet - I am the mentee..."

Furthermore, Welch

"...asked our top 500 leaders to get Internet mentors, preferably under the age of 30..."

Jack Welch as quoted by Jack Welch et al, 2001

- older executives using younger members of their staff, especially Generation Xers to keep them up to date with the latest in business, customer desires and trends, staff aspirations, society changes, etc. In fact, both learn from each other, ie the young are allowed to grow and learn while the senior managers keep in touch with the thoughts of the younger generation.

- the ANZ Bank used junior women staff to mentor more senior male managers so that the men had a better understanding of gender issues

. While both men and women's careers can benefit from mentoring,

"...it was found that women benefit the most..."

Michael Cave, 2004

This is probably due to the fact that women face more barriers to advancement and they need help to overcome them

Mentoring should focus on behaviours and outcomes, not personalities; issues and problems, not subjective gripes; constructive development to improve motivation; mentee's growth and performance.

. Mentors and mentees should have face-to-face sessions at least half‐a-day per month. In these sessions, the attitude should be positive while discussing specific activities and issues; the focus is on looking forward to improvements. The mentor should askopen questions, listen, reflect on what is said, and respond appropriately. Self-assessment is encouraged, so don't criticise; the mentee should arrive at the solutions independently, with the mentor offering help and suggestions; focus on improving job performance, not personalities; discuss specific examples, not generalities; be aware of the potential for language misinterpretation, etc.

. The best mentors get their mentees to work things out for themselves by asking a lot of open questions so that individuals come to their own answers, rather than giving instructions or answers or solutions. Interestingly

"...brains are pattern-making organs with an innate desire to create novel connections. When people solve a problem themselves, the brain releases a rush of neuro-transmitters like adrenaline. This phenomenon provides a scientific basis for some of the practices of leadership coaching. Rather than lecturing and providing solutions, effective coaches use pertinent questions and support their clients in working out solutions of their own..."

David Rock et al, 2006

Thus a solution‐focus approach is more powerful than dwelling on problems only.

"...we have a choice when faced with an issue to either drill down to the problem or focus on the solution. A brain-based approach explains how focusing on the solutions actually creates solutions, while focusing on the problems can deepen the problems..."

David Rock et al, 2006a

Furthermore,

"...Perhaps any behaviour changes brought about by leaders, managers, therapists, trainers, or coaches is primarily a function of their ability to induce others to focus their attention on specific ideas, closely enough, often enough, and for a long enough time......how, then, can leaders effectively change their own or other people's behaviour? Start by leaving problem behaviours in the past, focus on identifying and creating new behaviours. Over time these may shape the dominant pathways in the brain. This is achieved through a solution-focused questioning approach that facilitates self-insights, rather than through advice-giving..."

David Rock, 2006

Mentors

"...need to learn to not give advice, or if they give it, they need to be very unattached to their ideas and present them as options instead of dictates..."'

David Rock et al, 2006a

Principles and Advantages of Mentoring

Remember: the role of a mentor is to help the mentee focus their attention on the right thinking and activities

Almost anyone can be an effective mentor

Most people appreciate being asked to assume a role as a mentor, especially if the mentee is not perceived as a threat and will "back off"when scheduled sessions are inconvenient. A mentor does not necessarily need to be regarded as "perfect"to be a valuable source of wisdom, and usually responds well to an enthusiastic mentee.

. Mentoring should be widely available. Mentoring is not just for the potential high achievers (A players are around 20% of an organisation); it should include solid citizens or B players (around 70% of an organisation) who are the long-term players in an organisation. Because B players stay longer, they build up institutional knowledge which makes them invaluable whenever the organisation changes, such as when merging, downsizing, opening new offices, etc. They tend to take a longer-term perspective as they have experienced the organisational cycles, ie understood the ups and downs. They tend to focus on organisational goals rather than personal ones as they value stability for themselves and for the organisation. They can exhibit extraordinary patience with career development. They are more likely to be team players who provide balance within the organisation, ie

- provide stability to complement the highly individualistic A players (who sometimes destabilize the organisation and are "high maintenance")

- shore up C players (around 10 percent of an organisation) who might otherwise flounder.

A mentoring relationship must be voluntary on both sides

A fruitful mentoring relationship requires mutual trust and respect. Two people reciprocally choose to help each other, based on affinity and chemistry: consequently, no one should be pressured to be in a mentoring program. If you are ready to be mentored, you will be willing to take risks, ie to go through the painful process of growing.

If the right chemistry is not present, the mentoring relationship will not work. It is best to acknowledge this upfront and quit with the approach of "no blame, no shame".

Mentors don't provide solutions: they facilitate learning

Often, an older person has more conceptual experience and has thought at length about the dynamics of a situation. On the other hand, a younger person is closer to the situation/action. If one supplies the theory, and the other supplies the detailed examples, they can then come together to conceive of a solution. Mentoring should focus on issues other than technical ones, eg cultural (how to think more effectively, and how the work fits in with the values of the overall organisation).

There needs to be a shared passion around some truth to allow people to genuinely share their thoughts. With that energy between the two, they are willing to lay open secrets so that the other person can advise candidly.

Remember: mentors need to focus on the other person and how their thinking is going, rather than doing too much thinking themselves. Furthermore, mentors need to identify the preferred learning style of the mentee, ie is it visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, etc? Once this is determined, then the mentor needs to adjust his approach accordingly.

Usually the mentee has various mental maps in conflict about how to solve the issue/problem/challenge/conflict/situation, etc. The brain needs help to work out how to resolve this situation by either creating a new map or by considering the existing maps.

Mentors can only exist in an organisation imbued with integrity

Mentoring involves advising people on their future and representing the organisation to them. There needs to be alignment between the individuals' and organisation's integrity and values.

Mentoring relationships are not necessarily permanent

Sometimes mentoring may just involve a specific project, and once the project is completed, the mentoring stops.

Mentoring can provide access to a network of relationships.

Mentoring "fast growth"people is a high-leverage strategy

This involves understanding how people take on and handle the difficult challenges and change in the process.

Mentoring provides better value for money than attending training courses and/or conferences as mentoring is one-on-one and focuses on the particular needs of a member of staff.

Mentoring brings out the best in each other

The true reward of mentoring is intrinsic: knowing that in some intangible way you are developing yourself by helping someone else, or helping others to complete themselves, or bringing out the best in each other.

Mentoring is about developing the right behaviours

Developing the right behaviours includes empowering and facilitating.

Empowering behaviours encourage staff to take more personal responsibility for their actions and decisions and involves

- framing questions in such a way as to encourage staff to think through issues; useful questions include

i) what do you think?

ii) why would it be different?

iii) how would this work?

iv) what would this achieve?

v) what are the implications?

- being a resource for removing obstacles

- transferring ownership, and ultimately accountability, to staff

- declining to accept accountability back, even when the going gets tough

- holding back from providing answers (holding back involves not providing the answer, even when the answer is known or believed to be known)

. Mentoring provides facilitation of learning, and involves

- providing feedback to staff

- asking for feedback from staff

- talking issues through collectively

- setting expectations

- providing a learning approach to issues

- stepping into others' positions in order to learn

- shifting staff's perceptions and opinions

- offering analogies, scenarios and examples

- engaging with others to encourage learning

. In other words, positive mentoring behaviours include

"...- soliciting feedback - asking questions to get feedback from employees on progress

- building issues through discussion to enhance employees' understanding of situations and expanding their knowledge about those situations

- setting expectations - ensuring that employees know what is expected of them in terms of performance, but always ensuring understanding as to why those outcomes are important and how they fit into the big picture

- promoting a learning environment - creating and encouraging opportunities for employees to learn, reflect on that learning, and translate those learnings into systematic ways of doing things

- stepping into others' positions in order to learn - encouraging employees to understand other points of view in order to appreciate different perspectives

- shifting employees' perspectives and opinions - arranging new experiences that are designed to create new and multiple perspectives

- offering analogies, scenarios and examples - relaying personal events and experiences, as well as stories of others, in order to encourage insight and understanding

- engaging others to encourage learning - suggesting third parties to communicate with in order to hear and appreciate other views and opinions..."

Harry Onsman, 2004d

Feedback is part of mentoring. There are 3 distinct types of feedback

i) observational (based on what the mentor observes)

ii) reflective (based on the mentor encouraging the mentee to make their own assessment)

iii) third party (based on obtaining feedback from third parties which is then provided to the mentee)

. Good mentoring involves an understanding of when it is time to end the mentoring relationship. This involves having a clear understanding of the objectives and when these are achieved, the mentoring relationship should end. Unfortunately, many mentoring situations evolve naturally and develop into a personal relationship. This personal relationship can make it difficult to end the mentoring element. Some signs that may indicate that one party has outgrown the mentoring relationship include

- not following advice

- an overly assertive, challenging attitude from the mentee

- feeling that the mentor is "out of touch"

. Standards Australia has developed guidelines on coaching in organisations. The guidelines encourage an ongoing transition from belief-based to evidence-based practices which ensure executive coaching adapts to the changing needs of leaders. Included in the guidelines are details about processes of engagement, confidentiality, reporting and accountability. Also the guidelines describe different types of coaching, types of outcomes, what to look for in a coach and how to manage the tripartite arrangement between the organisation paying for the coaching, the person being coached and the coach.

Coaching is seen as less threatening and cheaper than therapy; especially for men, coaching is seen as a substitute for therapy. Furthermore, becoming a coach is much cheaper and easier than becoming a therapist

· Coaching helps people become employable, ie people

"...continually working on themselves in efforts to remain employable and re-employable, and as a means of reconciling themselves to the declining employment prospects..."

Micki McGee as quoted by Genevieve Smith, 2014

Be Wary of Pseudo-mentoring

. Mentoring is not

- performance management

- about the development of "political"connections

- concerned with exploiting the contact for promotion up the organisational ladder

- to facilitate the building of a power base.

If any of these happen, both parties are exploiting each other and the organisation. They undermine the value of merit, ie if you can get ahead by manipulating a mentor or demanding loyalty, then you don't need to develop your capacity for performance. The only way to guard against these kinds of abuses is to cultivate an open, candid atmosphere so that other people can see political relationships in their true light, and make their decisions accordingly.

Mentoring involves a genuine commitment to development and learning, and is not about loyalty.

. Indicators of poor mentoring

- dictating what to do. This is not the mentor's job

- trying to sell something or being evangelical

- providing solutions - the idea is to facilitate the mentee's development

- being confrontational before the relationship has been able to develop

- encouraging dependence or trying to prolong the relationship

Sequence for setting-up positive mentoring

(This involves the need to profile and analyse issues such as the mentee's employment preferences, competencies, personality, career stage, goals, ambitions, etc.)

1 Discuss the following job elements with the mentee

- the context of the job (purpose, mission, values, strategies, key result areas, performance objectives, etc.)

- the performance parameters of the job itself

- discuss the specific development needs of the mentee (keeping in mind his/her personal/professional goals, his/her set of values, his/her strengths and weaknesses, his/her expectations from the mentoring, etc)

- set and detail specific performance requirements

- agree on an area of development focus

2 Prompt the mentee to visualize success in a difficult performance parameter of the job

- ask the mentee to imagine a scenario in which the success has been realized and describe that scenario in some detail

- ask the mentee to detail actions he or she took to achieve the positive outcome

- discuss any challenging aspects of the actions suggested by the mentee

- agree on first steps that need to be taken by the mentee

3 Review progress with the mentee

- generate feedback on what has been achieved, ie what the mentor observed; what the mentee experienced; what others saw, etc

- talk through issues that arose during the actions taken by the mentee

- draw out the learning that the mentee has gained from the experience to date

- ask the mentee to consider what else needs to happen

- if necessary, create specific learning opportunities that will assist the mentee to take any action that arises from this process

- if necessary, provide support to the mentee

4 Review performance upon completion

- agree on what happened and what was achieved

- provide observational feedback and seek reflective feedback from the mentee

- seek third party feedback

- discuss how the performance challenge could be tackled differently

- ask the mentee to identify specific learning achieved through the actions taken

- ask the mentee to nominate the development needs made apparent through the actions taken

An example of good mentoring

. This involves the pairing of innovators with carefully selected mentors who are continually educating an innovator about the problems he/she is most likely to encounter and the interactions he/she is most likely to have. Mentoring is a perfect supplement to the innovator's natural mixture of intuition and curiosity. Furthermore, the protege can test new ideas and assumptions with an experienced executive before introducing them to others in the organisation. The mentor will have a better understanding of the underlying agendas of other executives who need to be convinced.

How to Choose a Mentor

Some questions to ask to help choose a mentor

. What do you, your organisation and boss want to achieve through mentoring and how will you measure success?

. Do the mentors you are considering know what they are doing? Do they have the relevant qualifications and experience? Do they keep up to date? Do they have a code of conduct? Are they aware of and comply with the Australian guideline on coaching in organisations? Do you know other people and organisations which have used them?

. Do they listen to you and ask questions about your needs, or do they come with predefined solutions?

. Can they explain their coaching approach? Do you feel comfortable with them?

 How to find an ideal mentor

- have great networking (usually underestimated by women)
- think about your role model, ie the person you would most like to be
- don't use your boss as a mentor (as the best mentors are those that don't have a vested interest to advise you in a particular way)
- take different mentors for different goals and in different stages of your career/life (prepared to have multiple mentors to achieve a range of goals
- never stop looking for mentors, ie be willing to "pick" people's brains
- have a specific problem, question or set of goals for a mentor
- be prepared to realise that you need help
- a good mentor does not give the answer but challenges and helps the mentee with his/her thinking, ie there "may be another way of thinking or doing this"
NB mentor early, mentor often

In summary

A good mentor has been described as in these terms

"...Someone absolutely credible whose integrity transcends the message, be it positive or negative

Tells you things you may not want to hear but leaves you feeling that you have been heard

Interacts with you in a way that makes you want to become better

Makes you feel secure enough to take risks

Gives you the confidence to rise above your inner doubts and fears

Supports your attempts to set stretch goals for yourself

Presents opportunities and highlights challenges that you might not see on your own..."

Thomas DeLong et al, 2008

In other words,

"...good mentors describe their role as being the facilitation of learning and development, and describe their skills as being how they facilitate learning. They talk about leading being important and that they care about helping others to learn. They describe the learning process as involving trust; that it has to be integrated with work; and the learners need to learn for themselves. They believe that the learner wants to learn, and that it is important for them to learn.....Mentoring should consider the following principles

- mentoring is always about encouraging learning

- learning needs always to come from the employe

- learning is always best achieved through doing and reflecting on what was done

- the mentor always has to earn the trust and respect of the mentee

- actions which lead to learning always require a performance focus

- learning actions always involve specific behaviours

- learning is always invisible and the mentor can only find out whether it is happening by hearing the learner reflect on his/her experiences

- learning always happens at the edge of our comfort zones

- mentoring is never about the mentor and always about the mentee

- there are always multiple ways of doing things and there is never one best way...."

Harry Onsman, 2004d

Does mentoring work? Some research has shown

"...training program alone increased productivity 28 percent, but the addition of follow-up coaching to the training increased productivity 88 percent..."

David Rock et al, 2006

(sources: Peter Senge et al, 1999; David Clutterbuck, 2001; Steven Berglas, 2002; James Hall, 2004; Harry Onsman, 2004d; Fiona Smith, 2005a; Sue Mitchell, 2006; Joan Sheldon et al, 2006; Rachel Lebihan, 2006; Narelle Hooper, 2007; Catherine Fox, 2007e; Sally Patten, 2007; Narrelle Hooper, 2007c; Martyn Newman, 2007; Catherine Fox, 2008a; Thomas DeLong et al, 2008; David Rock et al, 2006; David Rock et al, 2006a; Rose-Anne Manns, 2008; Bob Selden, 2008; Rose-Anne Manns, 2008a; Rachel Lebihan, 2012; Ann Whyte, 2012)

 

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