Organisational Change Management Volume 2

Potential Challenges at Ingredient 3

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(forming a transitional team)

(NB Challenges are not necessarily in order of importance and includes some suggestions on how to handle the challenges)

. Succumbing to the myth that a "heroic CEO creates change". Remember that leadership is a non-hierarchical concept, ie itcan be found at any level in an organisation. Furthermore, one person cannot transform an organisation. It requires a group of dedicated staff to be the basis for change.

. Not understanding leadership - according to Rob Goffee (2008), in order to develop leadership people need early, rich, different experiences, ie learning leadership through experience. There is no pattern for leadership; it depends upon contexts, relationships and situations.

"...What works in one era, setting or organisation simply doesn't apply to any other..."

Barbara Kellerman, 2002

Most leadership research focuses on trait and style, and on individual leaders rather than leadership.

Being authentic is an important part of being a leader, ie there is a consistency between words and deeds

In leadershipthere is a need to handle the inspiration tensions, such as

- showing your strengths and revealing your weaknesses

- being yourself but conforming enough

- get close but keep your distance

- be authentic but be prepared to be a role player

Furthermore, leadership involves having a "good sense for the situation and timing". They know what to say and when to say it, when to "pull back", when to "push ahead", etc; these characteristics are called situational sensing, ie leaders know when to conform enough and connect by

- reading the situation and knowing how to handle it best

- relating to people as they care about people and understand them

- managing the 'social distance' (know when they should be physically close or not)

- skilfully using similarities and differences to their advantage

- using their own major traits to an advantage, eg John Major and John Howard's ordinariness.

. Not realising the importance of trust in leadership. The characteristics of trustworthiness (Nicole Gillespie, 2012) include

- competency (having the knowledge, skills and experience to handle the job)

- benevolence (people expect leaders to have their best interests at heart)

- integrity (adherence to a set of clear principles, such as honesty and fairness)

. Not realising that most organisation with their structure, culture, processes, systems, etc kills leaderships as it makes people like clones and does not encourage differences, diversity, etc.

. Not appreciating that leadership can be dangerous and risky

"...when exercising leadership, you risk getting marginalised, diverted, attacked or seduced......their goal is to shut down those who exercise leadership in order to preserve what they have..."

Martin A Heifetz et al, 2002

. Both leadership (visionary and unleashing) and management is needed; with leadership (providing the inspiration) more important than management (providing the perspiration)

. Not realising that leadership is more than solving technical problems. Many managers are well-trained as technical experts but are very poorly trained in mobilising people to change their ways. For example, doctor are well-trained to handle technical problems, such as surgery, etc but are less effective in convincing people to change their lifestyles, etc to help solve their problem. Furthermore, people in positions of authority pride themselves on being able to solve problems that other people cannot. But in today's world it is getting harder and harder for managers to have the capability to provide answers; to handle this

"...the best they can do is to frame up the right questions, identify the key realities that need to be addressed, and then challenge people to take responsibility for tackling those problems..."

Ronald A Heifetz as quoted by Loren Gary, 2005

. Not realizing that leadership has no one magic formula and can involve facing novel situations that have no prescribed solutions, or precedents. Thus a major goal of leadership development should be to prepare leaders to anticipate the unexpected/novel. Encouraging someone to draw upon ideas, solutions, experiences and insights outside their regular world may be a useful strategy.

" to unfamiliar problems are unlikely to come from tunnel vision of organisations or industry norms. Leaders need to develop the ability to obtain outsights......we need to move from thinking about designing courses and curricula, to orchestrating experiences and opportunities...... we need to get beyond traditional business and economic disciplines, and draw upon other schools of thought, or intellectual traditions - such as those found in the arts, sciences and philosophy......this would lead to exposure of different styles of thinking and even promote the use of different parts of the brain..."

Chris Styles et al, 2009

Linked with this is involving people who will bring and an alternative experience base to the discussion, and make very different connections between observations, facts and perceptions. This could include artist, writers, technologists, military personnel, etc.

Furthermore, self-discovery often comes when we are taken out of our regular environments, so that our internal and external sensory abilities are heightened. Remember: most organisational problems are multi-faceted, touching a range of disciplines. Thus the aim should be to

"...develop leaders who can operate in different modes - the analytical, strategic, and able to construct and critique a sound business case, while also having the ability to be contrarian, constantly challenging the status quo, question orthodoxy, be willing to experiment. They will also need to be able to pick up weak signals, make fast adjustments, and it is on a continuous basis, knowing when the old rules no longer apply..."

Chris Styles et al, 2009

. Not realizing that leadership is an activity, not a position. Furthermore, the complexity of the challenges facing organisations, communities, etc is increasing and too complex, interconnected and messy for one person to have all the answers.

. Not realizing that there is a clear distinction between a leader and someone who has obtained a position of authority

"...leadership comes from the margins and from individuals counting themselves into the debate, not waiting for someone else, some other expert to fix the problem......the pursuit of authority and power will take someone to a very different place from the pursuit of leadership. Unlike the role of an authority, leadership inherently creates instability, at least initially. Whether it's the nation, a corporation or the local parents and citizens committee, few people are ever patted on the back for destabilizing the group; even fewer are thanked for asking questions that challenge or shamed those concerned. That is why leaders must understand that when power is challenged, it hits back ruthlessly. It's important to know that the attacks begin immediately and they begin 60% of the work you need to do is forging partnerships with those who support you and those who oppose you......You need to be patient too. Good leadership does not rush to impose a solution: it waits and sits with the complexity until the right direction becomes clear..."

Paul Porteous as quoted by Jackie Macken, 2004

. Need to understand the different focus of informal and formal leadership, ie

Focus of Formal & Informal Leadership



. Reporting structure

. Decision-making (rules & regulations)

. Business processes & policies

. Organisational development programs (training & leadership)

. Performance management

. Compensation & rewards

. Internal communications

. Councils & c'tees

. Organisational events

. Behaviour modeling by senior leaders

. Meaningful manager-staff connections

. Internal, cross-organisational networks

. Ad hoc gatherings

. Peer-to-peer interactions & storytelling

. Communities of interest

. Engagement of influencers

. Changes to physical plant, resources & aesthetics

(source: Jon R Katzenbach et al, 2012)

Power versus influence
"...if you have power, you're able to change things and you have the ultimate ability to make something happen......with influence you have to try to get other people with power to do something......power is exerted downwards and influence is applied upwards..."
Anne Summers as quoted by Caitlin Fitzsimmons, 2015
"...Power is the ability to force an outcome, versus the power to influence or add to a conversation that may ultimately lead to an outcome..."
Naomi Simson as quoted by Caitlin Fitzsimmons, 2015
Based on this analysis it is suggested that social media has influence rather than power as social media puts pressure on people holding power and influences them to make certain decisions. Some examples:
- Kim Kardashian (US celebrity) influenced Twitter to add an edit feature.
NB Kim Kardashian's following on Instagram (45 m.), Twitter (35 m.) and Facebook (26m.) (2015)
- Taylor Swift (who has 63 m. Twitter followers) used social media to get Apple to reverse its policy of not paying musicians during a 3 months free streaming trial
Once somebody on social media attracts followers who become his/her audience, then they have the ability to have an impact on the audience. Social media influence can be transient as its endurance depends the community. True influence comes from longevity, building relationships and good content.

. Not understanding that leading change requires striking a balance between 6 pairs of opposites, ie

i) catalysing change v coping with transitions (human issues)

ii) showing a sense of urgency v demonstrating realistic patience

iii) being tough v being empathetic

iv) showing optimism v being realistic and open

v) being self-reliant v trusting others

vi) capitalising on strengths v going against the grain.

One is focusing on the business concerns (aligning resources, restructuring, etc); while the other is focusing on people concerns (helping staff cope with change, etc).

. Under-estimating the depth and forces of structural power that are present to maintain the status quo. This is associated with a perceived fear of being powerless; however, in resisting and subverting the status quo, you can exercise power

" one finds enough power to act and to do leadership differently seems.......central. Most leaders find that, to achieve change, they cannot rely on the formal authority that may come with the role. Additional sources of power and influence, including personal charisma and strengths in communication, networks or contacts, professional credibility, and so on must be called upon...."

Amanda Sinclair, 2007

Furthermore many managers feel powerless to act, or lead, differently without unreasonable risk to their professional status. Many feel powerless to manage the important matters in their lives or to be able to spend enough time on things that matter most to them. Sometimes silence and compliance with the status quo of power relations or institutional power is safer.

"...marginalization and domination arise not so much through individual personal relations but through often-invisible processes in hand in structural conditions..."

Amanda Sinclair, 2007

. Not realising that good leadership is situational. Successful people in one environment are not necessarily so in others, eg Peter Smedley was very successful at Shell (oil) and Colonial Bank (banking) but a failure at Mayne Nickless (health care). People need to lead for the times and be prepared to change.

. Not realizing that effective change leadership involves

- awareness (own and others' strengths & weaknesses)

- behaviours (doing the right thing - not necessarily the popular thing)

- role model (leading by example, ie positive example)

- providing a vision or focus or purpose for the future that people are willing to follow, share & believe in it; it motivate & persuade other

- resilience/persistence in the face of adversity or crisis (able to handle hard times & failures; stay positive

- opportunistic (when right situation arises, ready to grasp the opportunity)

- willingness to change

- humility

. Understanding that there is a need to get right the balance between leadership and management. Management can play an important role in stabilising an organisation. For example, in the case of construction giant Leighton Holdings, Dieter Adamsas (formerly CFO of Leighton) was the ideal balance for Wal King's (ex CEO) ambitions. Adamsas left active management in Leighton in 2007 and since then Leighton has struggled (Jamie Freed, 2011).

. Not realising the importance of kindness. There is growing scientific evidence (Dominic White, 2012) that showing kindness leads to increased performance, productivity, better immune function, lower stress & reduced absenteeism. Also, good leadership results in reduction in sick leave (27%) and disability pensions (46%); staff with good leaders were 40% more likely to report high levels of psychological well-being, including lower levels of anxiety.
To become a leader involves challenging yourself, growing and learning

"'s just not formulaic here.  There is no manual on this is how to lead.  It's all about trying to encourage and create a framework within the environment and then encourage a sense of getting the best out of our people and it has to be really tailored towards every business and every team.  We have this guiding philosophy, and over a arching philosophy of promoting a culture of opportunity, accountability and integrity.  They are really Amcor three principles and then there's a lot of flexibility in Q given to people to think about what's going on in their business and their environment and applying it and building their team..."
Shemara Wikramanayake (Macquarie Bank) has quoted by Tony Boyd et al 2016

Macquarie Bank looks through its staff to have a higher level of integrity in all aspects of work; be hard working; intelligent; perform including execution; inspire staff to reach their maximum potential

. The essence of good leadership is ineffable, ie cannot be put into words

- Not realising that when it comes to leadership, height helps, especially at the start.  People listen to you as physically you are overpowering and have a presence!!!! Also a reputation of being swift and decisive is a plus.

- Not realising that happiness should be part of leadership. Too many people in senior positions are miserable as society has dictated what they should value, ie status.  Status does not necessarily bring happiness.

. Allowing into the transitional team people with the wrong attitudes, ie

- who are closed-minded, ie custodians of the traditions or supporters of the status quo

- who have no passion for change, ie talkers rather than doers

- who are regarded as outsiders, ie not part of the mainstream of the organisation

- who have big egos, ie must always have their own way

- who are control freaks, ie need to tick boxes and follow a predetermined path

- who create mistrust, ie are not honest

- who are reluctant players, ie conscripts

- who are "I" (eye) specialists, ie "I have done this and that"

- who display "Fig Jam"syndrome, ie F--- I'am Good, Just Ask Me

- who are non-believers, ie resistors and/or CAVEs and/or custodians of the traditions

- who have meetings outside the team meeting, ie have a different agenda

- who are volunteers, ie always want to join something that is new and they tend to loss interest "once the novelty has worn off"

- who get the results, ie deliver on commitments; make the numbers, but do not share the values of the organisation, ie get the results by any means

Remember: it is more important in selecting team members

" go with passion and commitment rather than an org chart..."

Peter Senge et al, 2005

Need to include in this team those with an ability to be the change they were seeking to create and to be a microcosm of the larger collaborative you are trying to create

. Not understanding where to find the movers and shakers. The organisational chart does not necessarily demonstrate where the power resides, especially the exercise of covert power by people or groups. To identify the individual or groups, you need to be very observant and/or ask some leading questions (Fiona Smith, 2009s), eg

- who goes together to social events outside work (same social club, same sporting activities, same hobbies, etc)?

- who regularly mixes at work (during breaks, etc)?

- who do others at work constantly refer to?

- in a meeting, who does everyone look to for a reaction?

Furthermore, to influence a group you need to understand your own personal power sources. These are the things you can work on to build a good working relationship and can include your access to resources, your networks, or your ability to fix problems, etc.

. Not understanding how leaders embed their beliefs, values and assumptions in an organisation. According to Edgar Schein (2004), they do this by 3 mechanisms, ie primary embedding and secondary articulation, and reinforcement.

"...Primary embedding mechanisms

- what leaders pay attention to, measure, and control on a regular basis

- what leaders react to (for example, critical incidents and organisational crises)

- what leaders allocate resources

- deliberate role-modelling, teaching, and coaching

- how leaders allocate rewards and status

- how leaders recruit, select, promote and excommunicate

Secondary articulation and reinforcement mechanisms

- organisational design and structure

- organisational systems and procedures

- rites and rituals of the organisation

- design of physical space, facades and buildings

- stories about important events and people

- formal statements of organisational philosophy, creeds and charters..."

Edgar Schein, 2004

Remember: the 6 primary mechanisms are cultural creators andthe 6 secondary mechanisms are cultural re-inforcers; the latter are

"...less powerful, more ambiguous and more difficult to control..."

Edgar Schein, 2004

In a young organisation, the initial leadership impact on developing the culture will be immense by using mainly the primary, culture-creating mechanisms. On the other hand, once an organisation has matured and stabilised, the primary mechanisms developed by the initial leadership could end up restraining future letters who may want to change the organisation, ie

"...the likelihood of new leaders becoming cultural change agent declines as the organisation matures. The socialisation process then begins to reflect what has worked in the past, not what may be the primary agenda of the new leadership..."

Edgar Schein, 2004

It is important that the primary and secondary mechanisms, and all elements within each mechanisms, are aligned and consistent to build up the organisational ideologies and to formalise what is informally taken for granted. If they are inconsistent, they become a source of internal conflict, or become the basis for sub-cultures and/or counter-cultures and the secondary mechanisms will be ignored in preference to the primary mechanisms,.

The secondary mechanisms resemble the cultural artifacts that are highly visible but may be difficult to understand without insider knowledge obtained from observing the organisation's and leader's actual behaviours. Behaviours are more important than what is written down or inferred from visible designs, procedures, rituals, stories or published philosophies (for more details see "common management errors"in Volume 1)

. Not understanding that leaders need followers. As Chris Musselwhite (2006) states, good followers have the following characteristics: honest, supportive, reliable, always see the big picture, ask good questions and aware of their own assumptions

. Underestimating the speed of market and technological change that requires fast decision-making in a less certain environment

. Underestimating the difficulties of producing change

. Not realising the importance of the transitional team as a powerful guiding coalition, ie people in the coalition must have respect and status within the organisation and include key line managers. It must be more than just another committee. Two interesting historical examples:

i) Charles Darwin had his own alliance or "change team" to advocate his theory of evolution. This team consisted of 4 eminent scientists (3 Englishmen and 1 American):e
        - Charles Lyell (human archaeology and prehistory specialist)
        - Joseph Hooker (botanist)
        - Thomas Henry Huxley (zoologist and comparative anatomist)
        - Asa Gray (US-based botanist)

These 4 were his first followers who supported his ideas and championed them

ii) Jesus Christ with his 12 disciples who spread his teachings after his death

. It is of interest to note that it has been suggested by Howard Gardner (2006) that "first borns"are generally less receptive to change when compared with "later-borns". Based on this, it might prudent to check to see that there are enough "later borns"in the transitional team

. Too much focus on the staff in the "A"players (stars, high flyers, most talented performers, more mobile, etc) and not enough focus on the "B"players (supporters, the stayers, doers, steady performers, stabilizers, survivors, etc).

- the A players can be fiercely ambitious, very capable and intelligent, and treat less talented staff with contempt. On the other hand, as claimed by Steven Berglas (2006), many A players use a veneer of self-satisfaction and smugness to hide a lack of confidence, ie insecure over-achievers. Thus they need special attention, ie personalized praise to handle their special needs (weaknesses and vulnerabilities). For example, sports coaches of superstars use them as junior coaches to the team.

- the B players can have a bigger impact on the change process as they stay with the organisation longer and are more likely to be the opinion-makers

"...found that companies' long-term performance ‐ even survival ‐ depends far more on the unsung commitment and contribution of their B players......many B players are less ambitious than A players and therefore remain in one position longer......their tenure fosters stability and deep knowledge of the organisation's culture, political dynamics, and processes. Often, such employees cultivate extensive networks and become the "go to"experts - people consult them when pushing initiatives through politically challenging terrain..."Thomas J Delong et al, 2003

The quickest way to identify the B players is to list the people who make the fewest demands on senior managers' time. Furthermore, within the B players are individuals who

- have ratcheted down their careers for personal/family reasons

- are truth tellers (more interested in their work than careers, and have a zeal for honesty and reality in interacting with superiors)

- are go-to people (have second-rate functional skills. On the other hand, they have great knowledge of the organisation's process and norms)

- "middling"(they take the "path of least resistance"and steer clear of risk. They are not entrepreneurial but are responsible and care deeply about the organisational values)

These B players are not necessarily ready for new roles but can benefit from training to help them perform better in their current positions and perhaps assume some new responsibilities within those roles.

In the Consolidated Group of companies (Packer family), the average length of time the B players have worked in the Packer organisation was 11 years. This is considerable longer than the A players who regularly do not complete their contracted period of tenure.

. Lacking appreciation of teamwork, and the importance of trust and a common goal in developing teamwork, and getting away from "group think".

. Lacking appreciation of leadership in the team selection, eg change leader does not have sufficient clout within the organisation

. Underestimating the potential opposition and its strength

. Too frequently rotating staff in and out of the transitional team

. Need to have commitment from top management

. Members of the coalition must not appear to develop a higher level of knowledge of the task than others in the organisation. If any of the essential players in the organisation has these characteristics, change will be virtually impossible, and hard decisions may have to be made, eg earlier retirement or negotiated resignation, etc. There is a need to confront these issues.

. Sometimes during the change process, a stage of anarchy or chaos arises. The first reaction of a manager is to press the panic button, and take control, ie stop the process. A leader recognises the importance of this stage, and guides it rather than controls or stops it.

. Too many change survivors, such as "too many near death experiences"and cynical people who have learned how to live through change programs without changing at all, ie attitude reflected by

"...I'll believe it once I see it..."


"...too many near death experiences..."

. Too much "silo/stovepipe"thinking, etc ie only concerned about protecting their area of the organisation

. Management who are good at championing change but poor at changing themselves, ie managers who don't assign the best people because they fear that the work of their own department will suffer

. Under-estimating the importance of the immediate supervisors. It has been observed (T.J Larkin, et al, 1996) that generally staff will listen and take notice of their immediate supervisor more than anyone else in the organisation. Furthermore, according to Martyn Newman (2007), the relationship with the supervisor is the most dominant factor in improving staff productivity; with the key drivers of improving productivity being:

- feeling cared and valued by a supervisor or someone at work

- receiving recognition or praise in the past 7 days

- receiving regular encouragement of development (personal and professional)

NB The key drivers of performance are not carrot (rewards) and sticks (rules)

An Australian study (Fiona Smith, 2012) re-enforces the concept that frontline managers or supervisors have the greatest impact on profitability and productivity. Additionally, those organisations that have the best connections with staff and make people feel valued (e.g. sense of identity, self-esteem, get acknowledgment from bosses, etc) are 3 times more productive. Other ingredients for a high performance workplace include:

- ability to respond to changes in environment

- effective use and quality of information, communication & technology

- attracting & retaining high-quality staff

- flexibility in employee behaviour & skills

. Often transitional change starts when a small group of people start "learning". Generally they make major strides in their own learning before the rest of the organisation does. Sometimes these learners, who are usually in the transitional team, will make other people in the organisation anxious and envious, so that the organisation's auto-immune system will reject the transitional team and its ideas. The organisation's value system and culture needs to have enough flexibility to allow individual learning

. An "us and them"attitude develops between the transitional team and the rest of the organisation. As a team spends more time together, they develop their own unique way of operating and can unwittingly distance themselves from the rest of the organisation. Dynamics on both sides of the gulf reinforce this isolation, and make the gap wider. Both sides feel an almost irresistible pressure to defend themselves. They are right, the other side is wrong. If the transitional team stumbles, this is evidence against it. On the other hand, its success will be seen as an implicit criticism of more established ways of working. Either way, the team finds itself increasingly at odds with the larger organisation, and can develop a "siege mentality", ie unappreciated and misunderstood. Thus the challenge for both the transitional team and organisation in general is how can the transitional team and organisation remain attuned to fringe and counter-intuitive ideas and perceptions, without risking its core values?

Thus it is important for members of the transition team to keep their current jobs in the organisation.

. Change initiatives require new ways of thinking and visibly different forms of behaviour. When viewed from the transitional team's perspective, these new behaviours are valued expressions of new learning capabilities. On the other hand, from the perspective of individuals embedded in traditional organisational cultures, they can be very threatening. The transitional team is less concerned about the organisation's traditional measures or symbols of success. As the transitional team's own confidence grows, arrogance can increase, the latter can appear as "mirror kissing"or

"...legends in their own minds or lunch boxes..."

and lower the capacity for engagement with the rest of the organisation. To succeed, the transitional team has to increase involvement, understanding and engagement from the rest of the organisation so that any sign of critical disapproval from the rest of the organisation does not develop.

. Too much zeal ‐ the more personal and business results the transitional team achieves, the more arrogant and intolerant the transitional team appears to the rest of the organisation.

. Too much isolation - the deeper and more effective changes are, the more conflicts will arise between the transitional team and the rest of the organisation. The more people do change, the more different they become in thinking and acting from the mainstream culture. The more the transitional team succeeds in producing significant advances in practical results, the more potentially threatening the transitional team becomes to others competing with the rest of the organisation for management attention and reward.

. Not learning and understanding how to influence people who disagree with the transitional team's point of view, and not recognizing that learning to change others will mean changing the team's attitudes and behaviours first. Rigid views or noble certainties must be discontinued in order to see things from another's point of view, and to develop a meaningful dialogue: these element are vital for the change process to remain effective

. Underestimating the importance of stories (see Volume 3), especially when transitional team is trying to influence other people who understandably default to their self-interest.

"...They are either contented in their little world or apathetic, frustrated and secretly cynical about you and your goals. When you offer a story that helps them feel curious again and helps them make sense of the confusion, they will listen. If you can help people better understand what is going on, understand the plot......and their role in it, they will follow. Once they believe in your story they may even start to lead the way. A story can transform the impotent and hopeless into a band of evangelists ready to spread the other words.....using story to replace the old strategic plan's goals/objectives/strategy format..."

Annette Simmons, 2002

For example, Martin Luther King, in his famous speech in Washington D.C. during the civil rights movement, did not say "I have a strategic plan". Instead, he shouted, "I have a DREAM!"and he created a crusade. This speech was used to inspire generations of African-Americans to remember to change their story from "I have been oppressed"to "I have a dream". His dream was a story. Furthermore, Winston Churchill used the metaphor of an "iron curtain"to remind Americans who didn't want to get involved that they might be at risk if they ignored events in Europe

. Not realising that teams can have a strong ability to induce group think and conformity, ie

"...cast-iron norms emerge about what is discussed and how, about the level of challenge accepted and the amount of ingratiation expected. These norms are held in place by the superglue of small rituals - patterns of seating, of post-meeting chat, of connections and contacts, of history and shared experience......Teams prove to be dazzlingly effective at coercion and control. Most......teams were dominated by one or two individuals. Teams were ruled by agendas that stifle discussion more effectively than any hierarchy could. Meetings were commonly long and boring..."

Amanda Sinclair, 2004

Group-think or excessive concurrence-seeking usually occurs when teams become comfortable and do not see the need to challenge and/or change things.

Some ways to restrict groupthink and conformity include

- limiting the tenure of team members

- maximizing diversity amongst the team so that ideas are generated across disciplines from people unconcerned with boundaries. Similar to what cattle breeders call "hybrid vigour"

- appointing someone to act as "devil's advocate"

- bring outsiders in to evaluate the team's performance

- limit bonding sessions that restrict individuality

- to reduce this at meetings, get everyone to write down a brief summary of their views on each agenda item before the meeting. This procedure will help people value the diversity of knowledge and opinion in the group; it also helps to reduce the effect of the opinions of those who speak early and assertively, causing others to agree with them.

. Need to be aware of self-fulfilling prophecies, ie if people are labelled with something, like "smart"or "dumb", they will tend to live up to these reputations.

. Not realising the need to manage upwards. Too often the transitional team will focus on the lower levels of the organisation and neglect the upper echelons. Thus the need for the senior manager to focus on the senior management, Board and key outside stakeholders, such as shareholders, regulators, etc.. This allows for the transition team to focus on the organisation.

. Not realizing that in your change team you need to have members who can cover the following roles, ie

- stabiliser

- cheerleader

- persuader

- analyst

- pathfinder

- problem solver

- relationship builder

- facilitator (include learning)

- negotiator


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