Getting collaboration requires a cultural change. For example, academics should be judged less on the number of academic publications and more on the impact. Until this happens there is little incentive for researchers and their host establishments to become more entrepreneurial and commercial, ie work with the business world. At the same time the business world needs to approach universities and institutions for ideas and solutions

"...this idea that you do some basic research, and then you do some applied research, and then you it get it translated, then it gets commercialised - that's the push model and it rarely, if ever, works that way. The smart universities are starting to structure themselves around the pull factors. what are the problems we are trying to solve? And they're organising themselves around those instead of a silo of maths, the silo of science and so on..."
Chris Roberts (Cochlear) as quoted by Michael Bailey 2016

Another area that needs reviewing is tenure. Currently tenure is given for many years of focused work in a particular discipline, ie academics get tenure through depth of knowledge in a particular field, not through a multi-disciplinary approach or broad base of knowledge. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed in topics like climate change where the boundaries are not clear. This approach is sometimes called T-shaped skill, ie where the vertical bar of the T represents the depth of knowledge in a single field, while the horizontal bar is the ability of experts in other subjects and a willingness to apply accumulated knowledge.
One of the challenges of the education system is to create an entrepreneurial mindset around curiosity, connections and commercialisation. It is very rare for one person to be both good at research and commercialisation.

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